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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
__________________________________________________________________ 
Form 10-K
__________________________________________________________________
 (Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM TO
Commission File Number 001-33520
___________________________________________________________________
COMSCORE, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Delaware 54-1955550
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
11950 Democracy Drive, Suite 600
Reston, Virginia 20190
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
(703438-2000
(Registrant's Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading SymbolName of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per shareSCOR
NASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.
 ___________________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes    No 
The aggregate market value of the registrant's voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant, as of June 30, 2021, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $350.0 million (based on the closing price of the registrant's common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on that date). Solely for purposes of this disclosure, shares of the registrant's common stock held by executive officers and directors and each person who owned 10% or more of the outstanding common stock of the registrant have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not a conclusive determination for other purposes.
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant's classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date: As of February 24, 2022, there were 90,438,590 shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Specified portions of the registrant's Proxy Statement with respect to its 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days following the end of the registrant's fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


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COMSCORE, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE PERIOD ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2021
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
We may make certain statements, including in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, or 10-K, including the information contained in Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of this 10-K, and the information incorporated by reference in this 10-K, that constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of federal and state securities laws. Forward-looking statements are all statements other than statements of historical fact. We attempt to identify these forward-looking statements by words such as "may," "will," "should," "could," "might," "expect," "plan," "anticipate," "believe," "estimate," "target," "goal," "predict," "intend," "potential," "continue," "seek" and other comparable words. Similarly, statements that describe our business strategy, goals, prospects, opportunities, outlook, objectives, plans or intentions are also forward-looking statements. These statements may relate to, but are not limited to, expectations of future operating results or financial performance; expectations regarding the impact on our business of the coronavirus ("COVID-19") pandemic and global measures to mitigate the spread of the virus; macroeconomic trends that we expect may influence our business, including any recession or changes in consumer behavior resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic; plans for business continuity, financing and capital expenditures; expectations regarding liquidity, customer payments and compliance with debt and financing covenants and other payment obligations; expectations regarding enhanced commercial relationships and the development and introduction of new products; effects of restructuring, remote work arrangements and other employment actions; regulatory compliance and expected changes in the regulatory or privacy landscape affecting our business; expected impact of litigation and regulatory proceedings; and plans for growth and future operations, as well as assumptions relating to the foregoing.
Forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified. These statements are based on expectations and assumptions as of the date of this 10-K regarding future events and business performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual events or results to be materially different from any future events or results expressed or implied by these statements. These factors include those set forth in the following discussion and within Item 1A, "Risk Factors" of this 10-K and elsewhere within this report, and those identified in other documents that we file from time to time with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC.
We believe that it is important to communicate our future expectations to our investors. However, there may be events in the future that we are not able to accurately predict or control and that may cause our actual results to differ materially from the expectations we describe in our forward-looking statements. You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which apply only as of the date of this 10-K. You should carefully review the risk factors described in this 10-K and in other documents that we file from time to time with the SEC. Except as required by applicable law, including the rules and regulations of the SEC, we undertake no obligation, and expressly disclaim any duty, to publicly update or revise forward-looking statements, whether as a result of any new information, future events or otherwise. Although we believe the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable as of the date of this 10-K, our statements are not guarantees of future results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements, and actual outcomes and results may differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, any of our statements.







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PART I

ITEM 1.BUSINESS
Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this 10-K to "Comscore," "we," "us," the "Company" and "our" refer to comScore, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. We have registered trademarks around the globe, including Unified Digital Measurement®, UDM®, vCE®, Metrix®, Essentials®, Box Office Essentials®, OnDemand Essentials®, and TV Essentials®. This 10-K also contains additional trademarks and trade names of our company and our subsidiaries. We file and maintain trademark protection for our products and services. All trademarks and trade names appearing in this 10-K are the property of their respective holders.
Overview
We are a global information and analytics company that measures advertising, content, and the consumer audiences of each, across media platforms. We create our products using a global data platform that combines information on digital platforms (connected (Smart) televisions, mobile devices, tablets and computers), television ("TV"), over the top devices ("OTT"), direct to consumer applications, and movie screens with demographics and other descriptive information. We have developed proprietary data science that enables measurement of person-level and household-level audiences, removing duplicated viewing across devices and over time. This combination of data and methods enables a common standard for buyers and sellers to transact on advertising. This helps companies across the media ecosystem better understand and monetize their audiences and develop marketing plans, content and products to more efficiently and effectively reach those audiences. Our ability to unify behavioral and other descriptive data enables us to provide audience ratings, advertising verification, and granular consumer segments that describe hundreds of millions of consumers. Our customers include digital publishers, television networks, movie studios, content owners, brand advertisers, agencies and technology providers.
The information we analyze crosses geographies, types of content and activities, including websites, mobile and OTT applications ("apps"), video games, television and movie programming, electronic commerce ("e-commerce") and advertising.
We are a Delaware corporation headquartered in Reston, Virginia with principal offices located at 11950 Democracy Drive, Suite 600, Reston, VA 20190. Our telephone number is 703-438-2000.
Recent Key Developments
Leadership Changes
On July 21, 2021, Gregory Fink resigned as our Chief Financial Officer ("CFO") and Treasurer, effective August 31, 2021.
On October 19, 2021, our Board of Directors appointed Jonathan Carpenter as CFO and Treasurer, effective November 29, 2021. On December 10, 2021, our Board of Directors appointed Mary Margaret Curry as Chief Accounting Officer.
On February 28, 2022, our Chief Executive Officer ("CEO") and Executive Vice Chairman, William Livek, announced his intention to retire as CEO and transition to a non-executive Vice Chairman role after his successor as CEO is named. Mr. Livek plans to serve as non-executive Vice Chairman of our Board of Directors through the completion of his term in 2024.
Acquisition of Shareablee
On December 16, 2021, we entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the "Merger Agreement") with Shareablee, Inc. ("Shareablee"). Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, we acquired Shareablee for a total purchase price of up to $45.0 million, subject to certain adjustments and achievement of certain conditions set forth in the Merger Agreement.
At closing, the aggregate consideration payable to the former holders of Shareablee's capital stock and warrant, and certain underlying equity awards that we assumed in the acquisition, was approximately 9.1 million shares of our common stock, including an estimated working capital adjustment. The number of shares of common stock issuable at closing was determined by dividing (x) $36.4 million, plus the exercise price of options that we assumed, by (y) a price per share of our common stock of $4.12. The closing price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on December 16, 2021 was $3.14 per share.
With the closing of the Shareablee acquisition, we plan to expand our Media Metrix® and Video Metrix® currencies to include Shareablee's social media engagement and video insights, in order to bridge the industry gap of traditional digital and social measurement services that exists today. We expect the combined audience insights of Comscore and Shareablee to give media companies, brands and advertisers an unmatched understanding of cross-platform consumer engagement and reach. Integration plans call for Comscore digital products to benefit from Shareablee data, and for Shareablee clients to have additional advantages with curated views of Comscore digital data embedded in their Shareablee dashboards.
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Strategic Investment Transactions
On January 7, 2021, we entered into separate Securities Purchase Agreements with each of Charter Communications Holding Company, LLC ("Charter"), Qurate Retail, Inc. ("Qurate") and Pine Investor, LLC ("Pine"). The issuance of securities pursuant to the Securities Purchase Agreements (the "Transactions") and related matters were approved by our stockholders on March 9, 2021 and completed on March 10, 2021. At the closing of the Transactions, we issued and sold (a) to Charter, 27,509,203 shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share, in exchange for $68.0 million, (b) to Qurate, 27,509,203 shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock in exchange for $68.0 million and (c) to Pine, 27,509,203 shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock in exchange for $68.0 million. The proceeds of the Transactions were used to repay the $204.0 million of senior secured convertible notes due January 16, 2022 (the "Notes") issued to certain funds affiliated with or managed by Starboard Value LP. Additionally, in connection with the closing, we repaid the $13.0 million secured promissory note due December 31, 2021 issued by a subsidiary of the Company (the "Secured Term Note") and certain transaction-related expenses with cash from our balance sheet. Refer to Footnote 6, Debt for additional information on the Notes and the Secured Term Note.
COVID-19
During 2020 and the first half of 2021, the COVID-19 pandemic and related government mandates and restrictions had a significant impact on the media, advertising and entertainment industries in which we operate. The pandemic also had an impact on our business, including with respect to the execution of new and renewal contracts, the impact of closed movie theaters on our customers, customer payment delays and requests to modify contractual payment terms. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we took actions to mitigate the near-term liquidity impact, including freezing hiring, exiting non-critical consultants and contractors, terminating or negotiating reductions in vendor agreements and leases, and reducing certain travel, marketing, recruiting and other corporate activities. Although we cannot quantify the impact that the pandemic may have on our business in the future, we have seen positive recovery in the current year, including the reopening of theaters in most markets worldwide.

Background and Market
We were founded in 1999 on the belief that digital technology would transform the interactions between people, media and brands in ways that would generate substantial demand for data and analytics about that interaction. The growing adoption of digital technologies also allowed measurement of the behavior of consumers' online activities. Based on this vision, we built a global opt-in panel that provided insight into online activities. Over the years we have enhanced our product offerings by uniting panel data with census-level data from website tags and other sources, and we expanded our presence in various markets. In 2016, we merged with Rentrak Corporation ("Rentrak"), a global media measurement and advanced consumer targeting company serving the entertainment, television, video and advertising industries. Following the Rentrak merger, we have access to millions of television and video on demand ("VOD") screens and the ability to measure box office results from movie screens across the world. We also have an opt-in Total Home Panel, which enables measurement of household devices that use a home's internet connection, whether traditional mobile and computer devices, streaming media devices, gaming consoles or Internet of Things ("IOT") devices, which may include devices such as smart speakers, thermostats, and appliances.
Our Approach to Media Measurement
Our approach to measuring media consumption addresses the ubiquitous nature of media content and the fragmentation caused by the variety of platforms and technologies used to access such content. Advertising exposure and effectiveness is another rapidly changing and fragmented area where we apply scale for validation and campaign measurement across devices, platforms and ecosystem technology providers. We believe this fragmentation presents major challenges to using legacy measurement systems that are comprised of relatively small panels of cooperating consumers or limited to specific media platforms. Our products and services are built on measurement and analytic capabilities comprised of broad-based data collection, proprietary databases, internally developed software and a computational infrastructure to measure, analyze and report on digital, television and movie activity at the level of granularity that we believe the media and advertising industries need.
Data Collection
The following collection methods illustrate our extensive data sourcing:
We collect data from proprietary consumer panels that measure the use of computers, tablets and smartphones that access the internet. These panelists have agreed to install our passive metering software on their devices, home network or both.
We collect data from our near-census digital network whereby content publishers implement our software code (referred to as "tagging") on their websites, in mobile applications and video players to provide us usage information.
We license certain demographic and behavioral mobile and panel data from third-party data providers.
We obtain television viewership information from satellite, telecommunications, connected (Smart) TV and cable operators covering millions of television and VOD screens.
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We measure gross receipts and attendance information from movie screens across the world.
We integrate our digital and television viewership information with other third-party datasets that include consumer demographic characteristics, attitudes, lifestyles and purchase behavior.
We integrate many of our services with ad serving platforms.
We utilize knowledgeable in-house industry analysts that span verticals such as pharmaceuticals, media, finance, consumer packaged goods and political information to add value to our data.
We have created an opt-in Total Home Panel, which can capture data that runs through a home's internet connection. This expands our intelligence to include such activity as game console and IOT device usage.
Data Science and Management
The ability to integrate, manage and transform massive amounts of data is core to our company. We continue to invest in technologies to enable large-scale measurement with protection of consumer privacy and attractive economics. Our systems contain multiple redundancies and advanced distributed processing technologies. We have created innovations such as:
Our UDM methodology, which allows us to combine person-centric panel data with website server data. We believe this gives our customers greater accuracy, granularity and relevance in audience measurement.
Our TV measurement systems, underpinned by multiple patents, which enable us to provide a consistent measurement of TV audience sizes across national, local, and addressable television to customers evaluating programming as well as customers selling and buying TV advertising.
An ability to de-duplicate audiences across platforms, which is based on direct observations within our consumer panel and census data combined with proprietary data science. This de-duplication allows us to measure the reach and frequency of advertising and content exposure across platforms and over time.
An ability to validate advertising delivery and detect fraud through our Invalid Traffic and Sophisticated Invalid Traffic filtration methods. These methods have been accredited by the Media Rating Council, which provides our customers with added assurances of validity and reliability.
An ability to capture the full content of a website or app session, which allows us to measure activity beyond page views such as purchase transactions, application submissions and product configurations.
An ability to intelligently categorize massive amounts of web and video content, which allows us to inform targeted and brand-safe advertising.
Product Delivery
We deliver our products and services through diverse methods to meet the needs of our customers. These include Software-as-a-Service ("SAAS") delivery platforms, application programming interface and other data feeds that integrate directly with customer systems, and integrations with advertising technology providers such as data management platforms and demand-side platforms that enable data management, ad management and programmatic ad trading.
Our Products and Services
Our products and services help our customers measure audiences and consumer behavior across media platforms, while offering validation of advertising delivery and its effectiveness. Our customers include:
Local and national television broadcasters and content owners;
Network operators including cable companies, mobile operators and internet service providers;
OTT providers and distributors of streaming video content;
Digital content publishers and internet technology companies;
Advertising technology companies that aggregate supply and demand side inventory for sale to end customers;
Advertising agencies;
Movie studios and movie theater operators;
Financial service companies, including investment firms, consumer banks and credit card issuers;
Manufacturers and retailers of consumer products such as consumer packaged goods, pharmaceuticals, automotive and electronics; and
Political campaigns and related organizations.
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During 2021, our products and services were organized around three solution groups:
Ratings and Planning products and services that provide measurement of the behavior and characteristics of audiences of content and advertising, across television and digital platforms including connected (Smart) televisions, computers, tablets, mobile devices, and other connected devices;
Analytics and Optimization products and services including custom solutions, activation, lift and survey-based products, that provide end-to-end solutions for planning, optimization and evaluation of advertising campaigns and brand protection; and
Movies Reporting and Analytics products and services that measure movie viewership and box office results by capturing movie ticket sales in real time or near real time and include box office analytics, trend analysis and insights for movie studios and movie theater operators worldwide.
We categorize our revenue for 2021 and prior periods along these three solution groups; however, our shared cost structure is defined and tracked by function and not by our solution groups. These shared costs include employee costs, operational overhead, data centers and our technology that supports our product offerings.
Ratings and Planning products and services are designed to help customers find the most relevant viewing audience, whether that viewing is linear, non-linear, online or on-demand. These products and services include:
Media Metrix Multi-Platform and Mobile Metrix, which measure websites and apps on computers, smartphones and tablets across dozens of countries, are leading currencies for online media planning and enable customers to analyze audience size, reach, engagement, demographics and other characteristics. Publishers use Media Metrix Multi-Platform and Mobile Metrix to demonstrate the value of their audiences and understand market dynamics, and advertisers and their agencies use Media Metrix Multi-Platform and Mobile Metrix to plan and execute effective marketing and content campaigns. These products also provide competitive intelligence such as cross-site visiting patterns, traffic source/loss reporting and local market trends.
Video Metrix Multi-Platform, which delivers unduplicated measurement of digital video consumption across computer, smartphone, tablet and OTT devices and provides TV-comparable reach and engagement metrics, as well as audience demographics.
Plan Metrix, which provides an understanding of consumer lifestyle, buying and other consumption habits, online and offline, by integrating attitudes and interests with online behavior and provides customers with insight into patterns and trends needed to develop and execute advertising and marketing campaigns.
TV Essentials ("TVE"), which combines TV viewing information with marketing segmentation and consumer databases for enhanced audience intelligence. TVE data is also used in analytical applications to help customers better understand the performance of network advertising campaigns.
StationView Essentials ("SVE"), which allows customers to better understand consumer viewing patterns and characteristics across local TV stations and cable channels in their market(s) to promote viewership of a particular station and negotiate inventory pricing based on the size, value and relevance of the audience.
Cross-Platform Solutions at the national and local level, which provide an unduplicated view of reach, engagement and audience overlap across TV and digital platforms. Solutions include Comscore Campaign Ratings, which expands upon validated Campaign Essentials ("vCE") verification of mobile and desktop video campaigns with the addition of video advertising delivered via OTT and TV and provides unduplicated reporting that enables ad buyers and sellers to negotiate and evaluate campaigns across media platforms.
OnDemand Essentials, which provides multichannel video programming distributors and content providers with transactional tracking and reporting based on millions of television screens, enabling our customers to plan advertising campaigns that more precisely target consumers watching on-demand video content.
vCE, which validates whether digital ad impressions are visible to humans, identifies those that are fraudulent (e.g., delivered to automated bots or requested by malware), and verifies that ads are shown in brand safe content and delivered to the right audience targets. Advertisers and their agencies use vCE as the basis for negotiating and evaluating campaign performance against their contracts with, and payments to, digital publishers for ad campaigns.
Total Home Panel Suite, including OTT Intelligence and Connected Home, which capture OTT, connected TV ("CTV"), and IOT device usage and content consumption. Comscore Connected Home enables users to better understand consumer engagement with technology and media by measuring behavior across network and router-connected devices in the home. Comscore OTT Intelligence provides clients with critical insight into consumer OTT streaming activity on TV-connected devices, including smart TVs, streaming sticks and boxes, and gaming consoles.
Analytics and Optimization products and services provide end-to-end solutions for planning, optimization and evaluation of advertising campaigns and brand protection. These products are primarily a part of customized data services. These products and services include:
Comscore Marketing Solutions, which provide analytics that integrate online visitation and advertising data, TV viewing, purchase transactions, attitudinal research and other information assets. These custom deliverables are designed to meet client needs in specific industries such as automotive, financial services, media, retail, travel, telecommunications and technology.
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Applications include path-to-purchase analyses, competitive benchmarking, market segmentation studies, and branded content analytics.
Lift Models, which measure the impact of advertising on a brand across multiple behavioral and attitudinal dimensions such as brand awareness, purchase intent, online visitation, online and offline purchase behavior and retail store visitation, enabling customers to fine tune campaign strategy and execution.
Survey Analytics, which measure various types of consumer insights including brand health metrics.
Activation Solutions, including Audience Activation and Content Activation. Comscore Audience Activation offers targeting with demographics and cross-screen behaviors for digital, mobile and CTV campaigns. Comscore Content Activation provides a robust set of pre-bid inventory filters to help marketers and media companies achieve brand-safe, relevant campaign delivery across desktop, mobile, podcasts, and CTV.
Movies Reporting and Analytics products and services measure movie viewership and box office results by capturing movie ticket sales in real time or near real time and include box office analytics, trend analysis and insights for movie studios and movie theater operators worldwide. These products and services include:
Box Office Essentials and International Box Office Essentials, which provide detailed measurement of domestic and international theatrical gross receipts and attendance, with movie-specific information across the globe.
PostTrak, which is an exit polling service that reports audience demographics and the aspects of each title that trigger interest and attendance.
Swift, which is an electronic box office reporting system that facilitates the flow of reconciled theater-level ticket transactions.
Hollywood Software Suite, including Comscore Theatrical Distribution System ("TDS"), Comscore Exhibitor Management System ("EMS"), Comscore Enterprise Web, and Cinema Auditorium Control Engine ("ACE"). Comscore TDS is an advanced software to help manage theatrical distribution worldwide. Comscore EMS provides a virtual staff of booking assistants and accountants working to consolidate point-of-sale data. Comscore Enterprise Web gives circuit managers an over-the-shoulder look at operations inside their theaters. Cinema ACE is a theater management system that drives productivity and efficiency across digital cinema operations.
Research and Development
Our research and development activities span our business of media and cross-platform measurement, encompassing data collection, data science, analytical application development and product delivery. We continue to focus on expanding our coverage and scale, precision and granularity across diverse types of media, devices and geographies using our census, panel and other data assets.
Examples of our research and development initiatives include:
Enhancing our recruiting methods and software applications;
Developing new technologies to manage, stage and deliver cross-platform data and analytics through traditional web-based user interfaces and via integration with customer systems;
Designing new approaches to measurement challenges such as lift measurement, campaign measurement, and other areas that become more difficult as consumers increase their level of control over data pertaining to their activities;
Designing solutions to continue to measure the online media space in the face of increased privacy concerns, including the development of industry-compatible, interoperable methodologies that will function as browser, regulatory, and legal environments change;
Creating new methodologies to measure person-level TV and digital consumption at scale and across platforms; and
Continuing to develop expertise in combining multiple data assets, both to leverage single-platform datasets into representative cross-platform measurements as well as working with the data of partner companies, allowing us to enhance existing services and create new and innovative audience measurement products. These efforts include original research into the measurement of data overlaps and deduplication in the measurement of reach.
New Product Investments and Releases
Cookieless - Engineering Products in a Privacy Centric World
Our digital measurement is centered upon using first party panel data combined with additional information captured through census measurement and data partnerships. Historically, we have used cookies and mobile advertising IDs to provide additional context and scale to our digital audience measurement solutions, as well as to assist in more targeted measurement and reportability. The development of new opt-in permissions and enhanced focus on consent-based measurement provide the benefit of limiting the transfer of consumer personal information, but also mean changes to data collection and measurement processes.
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We are adopting new methodologies to lead this transition to a more privacy-centric world. A key component is leveraging our capabilities in panels, which we believe give us a competitive advantage in digital and cross-platform management. In parallel, our work with existing and new partners to collaborate and test emerging solutions is intended to expand the reach of our census-level integrations. We are creating measurement innovations designed to produce stronger products engineered for privacy.
We are also engaged in industry initiatives that focus on the viability and success of the "free web," which is driven by advertising investment. One of these initiatives, championed by Google and Facebook, is a proposal from the World Federation of Advertisers. In addition, in June 2021 we were selected by the Association of National Advertisers as a partner in their Cross-Media Measurement initiative for a pilot in measuring privacy-preserving reach and frequency measurements for television and digital media audiences, which is capable of reporting both demographics and cross-platform deduplication.
In December 2021, OpenAP and the Video Advertising Bureau identified Comscore as a participating measurement company in XPm, their cross-platform measurement framework that is backed by national TV publishers.
Comscore Predictive Audiences
With third-party cookie deprecation fast approaching, advertisers need bold new solutions to ensure their campaigns continue to reach the right audiences without interruption. In the first quarter of 2021 we launched Predictive Audiences – a cookie-free targeting capability that enables advertisers to reach audiences based on granular consumer behavior through privacy-friendly contextual signals. This solution delivers scale and precision beyond what was previously available in the industry, and can be used across digital, mobile, and CTV campaigns.
Branded Content Reporting
In 2021, we partnered with Hive, a leading provider of enterprise AI solutions, to reinvent its Branded Content reporting. Hive's computer vision technology is utilized to identify logos within video content. This detection from Hive is coupled with Comscore's media information to size the audiences to branded content, as well as describing those audiences based on demographics and advanced attributes.
Comscore Consumer Intelligence
Comscore Consumer Intelligence, powered by Consumer Orbit, provides local TV stations, local digital publishers and media buyers with actionable consumer insights to connect consumer behaviors with local television and digital consumption.
Comscore Consumer Intelligence is a local market audience segmentation and buying and sales tool that provides a comprehensive and granular view of what linear and digital audiences are searching online to buy, where they are shopping and how they interact with media. It is delivered monthly, compared to other consumer segmentation tools that are delivered annually.
Intellectual Property
Our intellectual property assets are important to protect our business. We protect our innovations and products with numerous patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, and other intellectual property. In particular, we file for, and seek to acquire patent rights for our innovations and we continue to seek to enhance our patent portfolio through targeted and strategic patent filings and licensing opportunities. We believe that we own the material trademarks used in connection with the marketing, distribution and sale of our products, both domestically and internationally. We will continue to pursue intellectual property opportunities in areas and technologies that we deem to be strategic and appropriate for our business.
Patents
Our patents extend across our data capture and processing techniques and include the following:
Data Collection - metering such as biometrics and audio fingerprinting, tagging such as video viewability, browser optimization, IP obfuscation and TV-off measurement methodology.
Data Processing - traffic and content categorization, demographic attribution, ad effectiveness measurement, data overlap and fusion, invalid traffic detection, data weighting, projection and processing of return path data.
Trademarks
We file and maintain trademark protection for our products and services. We rely on trademarks and service marks to protect our intellectual property assets and believe these are important to our marketing efforts and the competitive value of our products and services. We have registered trademarks around the globe, including Unified Digital Measurement®, UDM®, vCE®, Metrix®, Essentials®, Box Office Essentials®, OnDemand Essentials®, and TV Essentials®. This 10-K also contains additional trademarks and trade names of our Company and our subsidiaries. All trademarks and trade names appearing in this 10-K are the property of their respective holders.
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Licenses
We license data from third-party providers across the media platforms that we measure. Our licenses include agreements with satellite, telecommunications and cable operators covering television and VOD viewership data, third-party scheduling datasets and data matching partners, and agreements with providers of demographic and behavioral mobile and panel data. See "Our Approach to Media Measurement" above for a discussion of our data sourcing.
Competition
The market for audience and advertising measurement products is highly competitive and is evolving rapidly. We compete primarily with other providers of media intelligence and related analytical products and services. We also compete with providers of marketing services and solutions, with full-service survey providers and with internal solutions developed by customers and potential customers. Our principal competitors include:
Full-service market research firms, including Nielsen, Ipsos and GfK;
Television measurement competitors, which are evolving with the marketplace and now include advertising measurement startups such as VideoAmp, iSpot and others;
Companies that provide audience ratings for TV, radio and other media that have extended or may extend their current services, particularly in certain international markets, to the measurement of digital media, including Nielsen Audio (formerly Arbitron) and Xperi Corporation;
Online advertising companies that provide measurement of online ad effectiveness and ad delivery used for billing purposes, including Nielsen, Google and Facebook;
Companies that provide digital advertising technology point solutions, including DoubleVerify, Integral Ad Science, Moat (owned by Oracle) and WhiteOps;
Companies that provide audience measurement and competitive intelligence across digital platforms, including Nielsen, SimilarWeb and App Annie;
Analytical services companies that provide customers with detailed information about behavior on their own websites, including Adobe Analytics, IBM Digital Analytics and WebTrends Inc.;
Companies that report Smart TV data such as Vizio, Alphonso, Samsung and Samba TV; and
Companies that provide consumers with TV and digital services such as AT&T and Comcast.
We compete based on the following principal factors:
The ability to provide accurate measurement of digital audiences across multiple digital platforms;
The ability to provide TV audience measurement based on near-census data that increases accuracy and reduces variability;
The ability to provide deduplicated audience measurement across platforms;
The ability to provide actual, accurate and reliable data regarding audience behavior and activity in a timely manner, including the ability to maintain large and statistically representative panels;
The ability to provide reliable and objective third-party data that, as needed, is able to receive industry-accepted accreditation;
The ability to adapt product offerings to emerging digital media technologies and standards;
The breadth and depth of products and their flexibility and ease of use;
The availability of data across various industry verticals and geographic areas and expertise across these verticals and in these geographic areas; and
The ability to offer products that meet the changing needs of customers, particularly in the evolving privacy environment.
We believe we compete favorably on these factors and that our vision and investments in the future of media measurement across platforms will deliver products and services that our customers will continue to trust and value.
Government Regulation and Privacy
U.S. and international data security and privacy laws apply to our various businesses. We have programs in place to detect, contain and respond to data security incidents; however, increasing technology risks or unauthorized users who successfully breach our network security could misappropriate or misuse our proprietary information or cause interruptions in our services. Many countries have data protection laws with different requirements than those in the U.S., and many states in the U.S. have or are developing their own data protection and privacy requirements. This may result in inconsistent requirements and differing interpretations across jurisdictions.
Governments, privacy advocates and class action attorneys are increasingly scrutinizing how companies collect, process, use, store, share and transmit personal data. Laws such as the California Consumer Privacy Act ("CCPA"), Brazil's General Data Protection Law ("LGPD"), the General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") in Europe and industry self-regulatory codes have been enacted, and
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more are being considered that will affect our ability (and our customers' ability) to reach current and prospective customers, to respond to individual customer requests under the laws, and to implement our business models effectively. The GDPR took effect in May 2018 and includes requirements regarding the collection and handling of individuals' personal data. The CCPA went into effect in January 2020, and the LGPD went into effect in September 2020. Beginning in January 2023, three new state privacy laws (and their applicable regulations) are scheduled to come into effect. The California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 ("CPRA") is scheduled to become fully operative on January 1, 2023 (substantially expanding the CCPA); the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act is scheduled to become effective on January 1, 2023; and the Colorado Privacy Act is scheduled to become effective on July 1, 2023. In addition, regulators in the European Union and elsewhere are increasingly focused on consent and the collection of data using tracking technologies and cross-border data transfers. Failure to meet the applicable GDPR, CCPA, CPRA or LGPD requirements, or failure to comply with privacy, data collection, data transfer or consent requirements in other jurisdictions, could result in substantial penalties.
We also monitor actions by the Federal Communications Commission and the Federal Trade Commission, including regulatory developments affecting Internet Service Providers and other industry participants.
Human Capital Management
Our management of human capital is essential to the success of our company, and our management team is actively engaged in developing a strong, engaged team to execute on our business plans.
As of January 31, 2022, we had 1,355 employees and 145 contingent providers/contractors. Our employee population, which is comprised 94% of full-time employees and 6% of part-time employees, is dispersed across the globe, as outlined below as of December 31, 2021.
Percent of Employees
North America64%
Asia-Pacific Rim16%
Europe12%
Latin America8%
The following table outlines the percentage of employees in different functional areas as of December 31, 2021:
Percent of Employees
Product and Technology53%
Sales and Service22%
Movies14%
General and Administrative11%

Employee Engagement & Retention
The development, attraction and retention of talent is critical to the success of our business. We focus on building employee engagement; developing a positive culture of trust, transparency, learning, and involvement; and competitive pay and benefits structures to attract and retain employees and protect the intellectual capital that we have built. We regularly review our employee turnover and satisfaction rates, and develop strategies and tactics to improve employee engagement and retention. On average, employee tenure is over six years, and more than 20% of our employees have been employed by our company for more than ten years.
We seek to attract and retain the best talent from a diverse group of sources around the world, in order to meet our current and future staffing needs. In addition to a robust employee referral practice and independent outreach, we have developed relationships with universities, professional associations, and industry alliances to further increase our outreach and talent pool. In 2021, our company conducted hiring in North America, Europe, India, and Latin America.
Where feasible within the countries in which we operate, we provide a competitive and varied portfolio of healthcare, wellness, financial, and other benefit offerings to suit the diverse needs and lifestyles of our employees. Within the United States, 86% of our employee population was enrolled in one of our healthcare plans as of December 31, 2021.
We provide virtual, on-demand learning opportunities to all employees, and we also develop and deliver custom learning programs to meet specific business needs and employee interests. In 2021, approximately 60% of our employees participated in learning activities through the on-demand portal.
We believe we have strong labor practices and employee-friendly policies that enable a culture of trust, collaboration, and compliance. Our employment standards begin and end with respect for the dignity and worth of each person. Employees have multiple avenues through which to express opinions, ideas, and concerns, which enables an open culture of communication and inclusion; our policies require that complaints are investigated and any findings are addressed. Our employees are not represented by labor unions outside of those few countries where union representation is a customary practice of doing business. The Company operates a Compliance
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Management System, a key component of which is mandatory training for all employees in areas including workplace harassment and our code of business conduct.
Work Environment
We believe we have created a work environment, whether in person or virtually, that represents our commitment to safety and wellness. In light of continued uncertainty in public health, we continue to provide flexibility to work remotely to ensure that employees can work effectively from their homes and protect their own health and that of their households. We provide both system and technology capability as well as personal support, including wellness activities and resources, virtual social activities, and support for working parents. Supporting the person, not just the "worker," allows us to maintain business operations without endangering employees or customers. We had no safety incidents or known incidents of work-related COVID-19 transmissions reported in 2021.
Diversity and Inclusion
We strive to build and develop a workforce that reflects diversity, equity, and inclusion at all levels of the organization. As of December 31, 2021, approximately 40% of our global workforce was female and approximately 30% of our executive leaders were female. Within the United States, approximately 40% of our employees identified as a person of color or as other than white. Our view is that our culture of involvement and appreciation of others enables us to more fully develop and leverage the strengths of our workforce to meet our business objectives. We place a high value on inclusion and employee-led opportunities across the Company, including the Employee Resource Groups ("ERGs") which are sponsored by senior leadership but are developed and maintained by diverse groups of employees who share or champion common interests, representations, or causes. We currently have ERGs in support of LGBTQ+ persons, people of color, women, young professionals, and remote workers. We have amplified our conversation and actions relating specifically to inclusion and diversity in the last year, taking a more active executive stance and implementing learning and development initiatives, additional ERGs, virtual employee gatherings and activities, and talent acquisition opportunities.
Locations and Geographic Areas
We are located around the globe with employees in 18 countries. Our primary geographic market is the United States, followed by Asia, Europe, Latin America and Canada. For information with respect to sales by geographic markets, refer to Footnote 4, Revenue Recognition, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Executive Officers and Directors
Executive Officers and Executive Director
William (Bill) Livek has served as our Chief Executive Officer since November 2019 and as our Vice Chairman since January 2016. He was our President from January 2016 through May 2018. Mr. Livek previously served as Vice Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Rentrak Corporation, a media measurement and consumer targeting company, from June 2009 until our merger with Rentrak in January 2016. Prior to Rentrak, Mr. Livek was founder and Chief Executive Officer of Symmetrical Capital, an investment and consulting firm; Senior Vice President, Strategic Alliances and International Expansion, of Experian Information Solutions, Inc., a provider of information, analytical and marketing services; and co-President of Experian's subsidiary Experian Research Services. He holds a B.S. degree in Communications Radio/Television from Southern Illinois University. Mr. Livek brings substantial industry experience and audience measurement expertise to our Board and management team.
Jonathan Carpenter has served as our Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer since November 2021. Mr. Carpenter previously served as Chief Financial Officer of Publishers Clearing House, a direct marketing and media company, from June 2016 until November 2021. Prior to Publishers Clearing House, he served in divisional CFO roles for Nielsen Company, Sears Holdings and NBC Universal. He began his career with General Electric in the GE Financial Management Program. Mr. Carpenter holds a bachelor's degree in economics from the University of Vermont.
Christopher Wilson has served as our Chief Commercial Officer since April 2019. He previously served as our Chief Revenue Officer from June 2017 to December 2018 and as our Executive Vice President, Commercial from January 2016 to June 2017. Prior to joining the company, Mr. Wilson served as President, National Television at Rentrak Corporation from 2010 until our merger with Rentrak in January 2016. Before Rentrak, he was Senior Vice President, Sales at Scarborough Research Company; President at Experian Research Services; President and COO of Simmons Market Research Bureau; and CEO and President of LogicLab, a division of Merkle LLC. Mr. Wilson holds a bachelor's degree in Broadcast Communications from Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.
Non-Executive Directors
Brent Rosenthal has served as Chairman of the Board since April 2018 and as a director since January 2016. Mr. Rosenthal is the Founder of Mountain Hawk Capital Partners, LLC., an investment fund focused on small and microcap equities in the technology, media, telecom (TMT) and food industries. Mr. Rosenthal has been the Lead Independent Director/Non-Executive Chairman of the board of directors of RiceBran Technologies, a food company, since July 2016 and served as an advisor to the board of directors and executive management of FLYHT Aerospace from December 2019 to June 2020 and as a member of the FLYHT Aerospace board of
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directors since June 2020. He also served on the board of directors of SITO Mobile, Ltd., a mobile location-based media platform, from August 2016 to July 2018, and as Non-Executive Chairman of its board of directors from June 2017 to July 2018. Previously, Mr. Rosenthal was a Partner in affiliates of W.R. Huff Asset Management where he worked from 2002 to 2016. Mr. Rosenthal served as the Non-Executive Chairman of Rentrak Corporation from 2011 to 2016. He was Special Advisor to the board of directors of Park City Group from November 2015 to February 2018. Mr. Rosenthal earned his B.S. from Lehigh University and M.B.A. from the S.C. Johnson Graduate School of Management at Cornell University. He is an inactive Certified Public Accountant. Mr. Rosenthal brings to our Board financial expertise and experience in the media and information industries.
Nana Banerjee has served as a director since March 2021. Dr. Banerjee has been a consultant to Cerberus Capital Management, a private equity firm, since September 2021. From March 2020 to September 2021, he served as a senior managing director of Cerberus Global Technology Solutions. Dr. Banerjee brings extensive experience in leading, innovating and scaling analytics and technology businesses globally. Prior to joining Cerberus, he served as the President and CEO of McGraw-Hill, an education solutions company, and a member of its Board of Directors from April 2018 to October 2019. From September 2012 to March 2018, he was group president and an executive officer of Verisk Analytics, a data analytics company, with responsibility for its high-growth businesses as well as oversight responsibility for its joint data and development environment and its centralized AI and advanced analytics organizations. He joined Verisk as part of its acquisition of Argus Information and Advisory Services, where he was CEO, and co-president and chief operating officer in prior roles. In other prior roles, Dr. Banerjee served as head of Citibank's credit card business in the United Kingdom and as vice president of marketing and analytics at GE Capital. Dr. Banerjee has a Ph.D. in applied mathematics from the State University of New York, a M.S. degree in mathematics from the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, and a B.S. degree with honors in mathematics from St. Stephens College, Delhi. Dr. Banerjee's extensive experience in analytics and technology enable him to bring valuable perspective to our Board.
Itzhak Fisher has served as a director since March 2021. Mr. Fisher is the Chairman and founder (2014 to present) of Pereg Ventures, a venture capital fund that invests in B2B information services businesses across the United States and Israel. Previously, he served in senior product and business development roles at Nielsen, as founder and Executive Chairman of Trendum, and as President and CEO of RSL Communications, where he built a telecommunications company that operated in over 20 countries and generated more than $1.5 billion in revenues. He also served on the board of directors of SITO Mobile from June 2017 to July 2018. Mr. Fisher received a B.S. in Computer Science from New York Institute of Technology and completed advanced studies in computer science at New York University. His other affiliations include the Strategic Advisory Group, Goldman Sachs; Advisory Board, NYU Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences; and President's Council, Tufts University. Mr. Fisher brings to our Board substantial experience in creating, operating and investing in digital, media and retail companies.
Irwin Gotlieb has served as a director since April 2019. Mr. Gotlieb was a senior advisor to WPP plc, a multinational advertising and public relations company, from April 2018 through December 2020. He was formerly the global Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of GroupM, a global media investment group, from its formation until 2012 and Chairman of GroupM until April 2018. Mr. Gotlieb served on the board of directors of Invidi, a media solutions company, from October 2007 to June 2020, and on the advisory board of Harland Clarke, a payment solutions company, from January 2014 to December 2018. Mr. Gotlieb brings over 40 years of industry experience to the Board and is the first media agency executive inducted into both the American Advertising Federation Hall of Fame and the Broadcasting & Cable Hall of Fame.
David Kline has served as a director since March 2021. Mr. Kline is Executive Vice President at Charter Communications, a communications and media company, and President of Spectrum Reach, the advertising sales division of Charter. Mr. Kline joined Charter in 2015 and provides strategic leadership to guide the company in both the traditional and advanced TV advertising space. Mr. Kline joined Charter from Visible World (now FreeWheel), where he served as President and COO directing their household addressable sales and programmatic advertising efforts. Earlier in his career, he served as President and COO of Cablevision Media Sales (now Altice Media Solutions) for more than 17 years. Mr. Kline serves on the board of directors for the Video Advertising Bureau and private companies Ampersand, Blockgraph and Canoe. He received a B.A. in a personalized study program focusing on marketing, finance, accounting and management from Ohio State University. Mr. Kline is a pioneering leader in the traditional and advanced TV advertising space and brings valuable relationships and perspective to our Board.
Pierre Liduena has served as a director since April 2021. Mr. Liduena is Group Vice President, Business Development at Charter Communications, a communications and media company, where he manages strategic partnerships for Charter. Prior to this he was Vice President, Corporate Development at Charter, where he managed M&A and Corporate Ventures activities. Prior to joining Charter in 2012, Mr. Liduena worked at UBS in the Technology, Media & Telecom investment banking group, and at EY in the Audit and Transaction Advisory groups. Mr. Liduena holds a Master in Management from EDHEC Business School in France, and an M.B.A. from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. In addition, he is a graduate of the Cable Executive Management program at Harvard Business School. Mr. Liduena brings to our Board financial expertise and substantial M&A and industry experience.
Kathi Love has served as a director since April 2019. Ms. Love is currently the CEO of Motherwell Resources LLC, a company devoted to management consulting and executive coaching. Prior to founding Motherwell in 2013, Ms. Love served as the President and CEO of GFK MRI (formerly Mediamark Research). MRI produced audience ratings for the consumer magazine industry in the United States, along with offering a projectable database on the demographics, attitudes, activities and buying behaviors of the U.S.
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consumer. MRI also developed and sold various software products. In 2018, Ms. Love was inducted into the Market Research Council Hall of Fame. Prior to joining MRI, Ms. Love held executive positions at The New York Times, EMAP Publishing and The Magazine Publishers of America. She has been an adjunct or guest instructor at Rutgers University, Brooklyn College and Queens College. Ms. Love holds a B.A. degree from Douglass College, Rutgers – The State University, an M.A. from Michigan State University and an M.Phil. from The Graduate Center, C.U.N.Y. She has advanced to candidacy for a Ph.D. in psychology and is a professional certified executive coach (PCC) and a member of the International Coach Federation (ICF). She has served on the board of directors of the Advertising Research Foundation, The Media Behavior Institute and the Market Research Council, of which she is past President. She sits on the board of the Associate Alumnae of Douglass College and serves as the treasurer and on the investment committee. She also uses her coaching skills during pro bono work at the Atlas School for Autism.
Marty Patterson has served as a director since March 2021. Mr. Patterson currently serves as Vice President of Liberty Media Corporation, Qurate Retail, Inc., Liberty TripAdvisor Holdings, Inc. and Liberty Broadband Corporation. He has been with Liberty Media Corporation, a media, communications and entertainment company, and its predecessors since 2010. Mr. Patterson currently serves as a director of Skyhook Wireless, Inc. and was formerly a director of Ideiasnet S.A. He received his B.A. from Colorado College and is a CFA Charterholder. Mr. Patterson brings to our Board extensive experience identifying and evaluating investment opportunities in the technology, media and telecommunications sectors.
Brian Wendling has served as a director since March 2021. Mr. Wendling is Chief Accounting Officer and Principal Financial Officer of Liberty Media Corporation, Qurate Retail, Inc. and Liberty Broadband Corporation. He is also Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Liberty TripAdvisor Holdings, Inc. Mr. Wendling has held various positions with these companies and their predecessors since 1999. Prior to joining these companies, he worked in the assurance practice of the accounting firm KPMG. Mr. Wendling has previously served on the boards of Fun Technologies Inc. and CommerceHub, Inc. He also serves on the board of Clothes to Kids of Colorado. He received his Bachelor of Science degree in accounting from Indiana University. Mr. Wendling brings over 25 years of accounting, public reporting and compliance experience to our Board.
Available Information
We make our periodic and current reports along with amendments to such reports available, free of charge, on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Our website address is www.comscore.com, and such reports are made available free of charge under "SEC Filings" in the Investor Relations section of our website. Information contained on our website is not part of this 10-K and is not incorporated herein by reference.
You can read our SEC filings, including this 10-K as well as our other periodic and current reports, on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.



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ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS
An investment in our Common Stock involves a substantial risk of loss. You should carefully consider the following risk factors, together with all of the other information included in this 10-K, before you decide whether to invest in shares of our Common Stock. The risks identified below could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results. In that case, the trading price of our Common Stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment. The risks described below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results, and may result in the loss of part or all of your investment.
Summary Risk Factors
Our business is subject to a number of risks, including risks that may prevent us from achieving our business objectives or may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects. These risks are discussed more fully below and include, but are not limited to:
Risks Related to Our Business and Our Technologies
The COVID-19 pandemic could continue to have adverse effects on our business.
The market for our products is highly competitive, and our revenues could decline if we cannot compete effectively.
If we are unable to provide complete analytics, our ability to maintain and grow our business may be harmed.
We depend on third parties for data and hosting/delivery services that are critical to our business.
If we fail to respond to technological developments or evolving industry standards, our products may become obsolete or less competitive.
Our business may be harmed if we deliver inaccurate or untimely information products, change our methodologies or the scope of information we collect, or are unable to maintain sufficient panels.
We derive a significant portion of our revenues from subscription-based products, and our customers could terminate or fail to renew their subscriptions.
Our financial results may suffer if we are unable to retain or add large customers or if we cannot persuade customers to substitute our products for incumbent providers.
Our acquisitions or partnerships with other companies may not be successful and may divert our management's attention.
System failures, security breaches, delays in system operations, or failure to pass customer/partner security reviews may harm our business.
We may not be able to adequately retain and hire qualified personnel.
Risks Related to Our Results of Operations
We may fail to meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors, which could cause our stock price to decline.
We may not generate sufficient cash to service our debt, dividend obligations, lease facilities and trade payables.
We may incur another impairment of goodwill or other intangible assets.
Changes in the fair value of our financing derivatives, warrants or contingent consideration could adversely affect our financial condition and results.
We may encounter difficulties managing our costs, may continue to incur net losses, and may not achieve profitability.
Our net operating loss carryforwards may expire unutilized or underutilized.
Risks Related to Legal and Regulatory Compliance, Litigation and Tax Matters
Concern over privacy violations and data breaches could materially harm our business.
Domestic or foreign laws may limit our ability to collect and incorporate media usage information in our products.
Third parties could assert that we are infringing their intellectual property rights, or we could be unable to protect and enforce our own intellectual property rights.
Our use of open source software could limit our ability to sell our products or require us to reengineer our products.
There could be adverse developments in tax laws or disagreements with our tax positions in the jurisdictions where we operate.
Risks Related to International Operations
Our business could become increasingly susceptible to risks associated with international operations, including those detailed below.
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Export controls and sanctions laws could impair our ability to compete in international markets and subject us to liability.
Changes in foreign currencies could have a significant effect on our operating results.
Risks Related to Our Capital Structure and Financings
The holders of our Preferred Stock have significant influence, and their interests may conflict with our other stockholders.
We may not realize the anticipated benefits of our Preferred Stock transactions, including commercial benefits from our data license with Charter.
The market value of our Common Stock could decline if the holders of our Preferred Stock sell their shares when transfer restrictions expire.
Our financing and debt covenants could restrict our operating flexibility.
Any failure to meet our debt obligations could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
We may need additional capital, which may not be available on acceptable terms or at all.
General Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
Securities that we may become obligated to issue under existing or future agreements may cause immediate and substantial dilution to our current stockholders.
Provisions in our governing documents and under Delaware law might discourage, delay or prevent a change of control or changes in our management.
Risks Related to Our Business and Our Technologies
The COVID-19 pandemic and related economic repercussions could continue to have adverse effects on our business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
The COVID-19 pandemic and related government mandates and restrictions have had a significant impact on the media, advertising and entertainment industries in which we operate. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may ultimately impact our business is uncertain and will depend in large part on our customers, many of whom continue to be affected by measures taken to mitigate the spread of the virus. To date, the COVID-19 pandemic and related measures have had some impact on our business, including with respect to the execution of new and renewal contracts, the impact of closed movie theaters on our customers, customer payment delays and requests to modify contractual payment terms, particularly in our Movies Reporting and Analytics business. These conditions have negatively impacted our revenue, cash flows, net loss and financial position, and could continue to have an impact in future periods. It is possible that long-term changes in consumer behavior will impact our customers' operations, and thus their demand for our services and ability to pay, even after the spread of COVID-19 has been contained and businesses are permitted to resume normal operations. While we have taken actions to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, these steps may not be successful or adequate if customer demand or cash collection efforts are further impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic or other factors.
Given the nature and significance of these events, we are unable to enumerate all risks to our business from the COVID-19 pandemic. However, we believe that in addition to the impacts described above, other current and potential impacts include, but are not limited to:
notices from customers and vendors arguing that any non-performance under our contracts with them is permitted as a result of force majeure or other reasons;
delays in meeting our payment obligations to vendors or others, which could result in the loss of goods and services necessary to operate our business;
inefficiencies, increased security risks and privacy concerns surrounding remote working arrangements, under which most of our employees are continuing to operate;
disruptions from operational changes we have undertaken or may undertake, including lease and contract terminations, workforce reductions, furloughs and other cost-reduction initiatives;
challenges in complying with our debt obligations or dividend requirements;
unfavorable capital and credit market conditions, which could impact our ability to obtain future financing;
heightened sensitivity from government regulators, particularly with respect to privacy compliance and cybersecurity in the current environment;
further impairment of lease-related assets, goodwill or other intangible assets; and
litigation risk and possible loss contingencies related to COVID-19 and its impact, including with respect to our debt facilities, leases, commercial contracts, employee matters and insurance arrangements.
We cannot predict the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or its effects on our business or financial performance in the future; nor can we guarantee that any measures we have taken or will take to mitigate the impact will be successful. To the extent COVID-19
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continues to adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation or cash flows, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described below.
The market for media measurement and analytics products is highly competitive, and if we cannot compete effectively, our revenues could decline and our business could be harmed.
The market for audience and advertising measurement products is highly competitive and is evolving rapidly. We compete primarily with providers of media intelligence and related analytical products and services. We also compete with providers of marketing services and solutions, with full-service survey providers, and with internal solutions developed by customers and potential customers. We expect competition to intensify as a result of the entrance of new competitors and the development of new technologies, products and services in our industry. Some of our competitors have substantially greater resources than we do. As a result, these competitors may be able to devote greater resources to development of systems and technologies, acquisition of data, recruitment and retention of personnel, marketing and promotional campaigns, panel retention and development, and other key areas that can impact our ability to compete effectively. In addition, some of our competitors have adopted and may continue to adopt aggressive pricing policies, including the provision of certain services at little or no cost, in order to retain or acquire customers. Furthermore, large software companies, internet platforms and database management companies may enter our market or enhance their current offerings, either by developing competing services or by acquiring our competitors, and could leverage their significant resources and pre-existing relationships with our current and potential customers. Finally, consolidation of our competitors could make it difficult for us to compete effectively. If we are unable to compete successfully against our current and future competitors, we may not be able to retain and acquire customers, and we may consequently experience a decline in revenues, reduced operating margins, loss of market share and diminished value from our products.
If we are unable to provide television, digital or cross-platform analytics, or if our analytics are incomplete, our ability to maintain and grow our business may be harmed.
As the media and advertising industries increasingly evaluate advertising campaigns across various forms of media, such as television, online, and mobile, the ability to measure the combined size and composition of audiences across platforms is increasingly important and in demand. If we are unable to gain or maintain access to information measuring a media component or type, or if we are unable to do so on commercially reasonable terms, our ability to meet our customers' demands and our business and financial performance may be harmed. Furthermore, even if we do have access to television and digital (including mobile and OTT) data, if we have insufficient technology, or encounter challenges in our methodological approaches, our products may be inferior to other offerings, and we may be unable to meet our customers' demands. In such event, our business and financial performance may be harmed.
In particular, our acquisition of television data may be reliant on companies that have historically held a dominant market position measuring television to produce industry-accepted measurement across a combination of media platforms. Our competitors or other providers may have more leverage with data providers and may be unable or unwilling to provide us with access to quality data to support our products, on reasonable terms or at all. Likewise, our acquisition of digital data may be reliant on large digital publishers that may technologically or legally prevent access to their proprietary platforms for research or measurement purposes. Moreover, as mobile devices, technology and OTT viewing continue to proliferate, gaining and maintaining cost-effective access to mobile and OTT data will become increasingly critical, and we could face difficulty in accessing these forms of data. If we are unable to acquire and integrate data effectively and efficiently, or if the cost of data acquisition or integration increases, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be harmed.
We depend on third parties for data and services that are critical to our business, and our business could suffer if we cannot continue to obtain reliable data from these suppliers or if third parties place additional restrictions on our use of such data.
We rely on third-party data sources for information usage across the media platforms that we measure, as well as demographics about the people that use such platforms. The availability and accuracy of this data is important to the continuation and development of our products and the performance of our obligations to customers. These data suppliers, some of whom compete with us or our significant stockholders, may increase restrictions on our use of such data, undertake audits (at either our or their expense) of our use of such data, require us to implement new processes with respect to such data, fail to adhere to our quality control, privacy or security standards or otherwise satisfactorily perform services, increase the price they charge us for the data or refuse to license the data to us. Additional restrictions on third-party data could limit our ability to include that data in our products, which could lead to decreased commercial opportunities for our products as well as loss of customers, sales credits, refunds or liability to our customers. To comply with any additional restrictions, we may be required to implement certain additional technological and manual controls that could put pressure on our cost structure and could affect our pricing. Supplier consolidation and increased pricing for additional use cases, including in connection with the integration of acquired companies and technologies, could also put pressure on our cost structure and our ability to meet obligations to our customers. We may be required to enter into vendor relationships, strategic alliances, or joint ventures with some third parties in order to obtain access to the data sources that we need. If our partners do not apply rigorous standards to their data collection methodology and actions, notwithstanding our best efforts, we may receive third-party data that is inaccurate, defective, or delayed. If third-party information is not available to us on commercially reasonable terms, or is found to be inaccurate, it could harm our products, our reputation, and our business and financial performance.
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If we fail to respond to technological developments or evolving industry standards, our products may become obsolete or less competitive.
We operate in industries that require sophisticated data collection and processing technologies. Our future success will depend in part on our ability to develop new and modify or enhance our existing products and services, including without limitation, our data collection technologies and approaches, in order to meet customer needs, add functionality and address technological advancements and industry standards. For example, the development of opt-in permissions and enhanced focus on consent-based measurement provide the benefit of limiting the transfer of consumer personal information, but also mean changes to our data collection, storage and delivery processes. If we are unable to innovate and adapt our methodologies to meet evolving customer needs, our products may become obsolete or less competitive. As another example, if certain proprietary devices become the primary mode of receiving content and conducting transactions on the internet, and we are unable to adapt to collect information from such devices, then we would not be able to report on digital usage activity. To remain competitive, we will need to develop new products that address these evolving technologies and standards across the universe of media including television, online, and mobile usage. However, we may be unsuccessful in identifying new product opportunities, developing or marketing new products in a timely or cost-effective manner, or obtaining the necessary access to data or technologies needed to support new products, or we may be limited in our ability to operate due to patents held by others. In addition, our product innovations may not achieve the market penetration or price levels necessary for profitability. If we are unable to develop and integrate timely enhancements to, and new features for, our existing methodologies or products or if we are unable to develop new products and technology that keep pace with rapid technological developments, changing industry standards or consumer preferences, our products may become obsolete, less marketable and less competitive, and our business will be harmed.
Furthermore, the market for our products is characterized by changes in protocols and evolving industry standards. For example, industry associations such as the Advertising Research Foundation, the Council of American Survey Research Organizations, the Internet Advertising Bureau, and the Media Rating Council as well as foreign and international industry associations have initiated efforts to either review market research methodologies across the media that we measure or develop minimum standards for such research. Failure to achieve accreditation, delays in accreditation, or adverse audit findings may negatively impact the market acceptance of our products. Meanwhile, successful accreditation or audits may lead to costly changes to our procedures and methodologies and may not result in the anticipated commercial benefits.
Our business may be harmed if we deliver, or are perceived to deliver, inaccurate or untimely information products.
The metrics contained in our products may be viewed as an important measure of the success of certain businesses, especially those that utilize our metrics to evaluate a variety of investments ranging from their internal operations to advertising initiatives. If the information that we provide to our customers, the media, or the public is inaccurate, or perceived to be inaccurate, whether due to inadequate methodological approaches, errors, biases towards certain available data sources or partners, disparate data sets across our products, defects or errors in data collection and processing (conducted by us or by third parties) or the systems used to collect, process or deliver data, our business may be harmed. Similarly, if the information that we provide to our customers is delayed or perceived to be untimely, our business may be harmed.
Any inaccuracy, perceived inaccuracy, inconsistency or delay in the data reported by us could lead to consequences that could adversely impact our operating results, including loss of customers; sales credits, refunds or liability to our customers; the incurrence of substantial costs to correct any material defect, error or inconsistency; increased warranty and insurance costs; potential litigation; interruptions in the availability of our products; diversion of development resources to improve our processes or delivery; lost or delayed market acceptance and sales of our products; and damage to our brand.
Our business may be harmed if we change our methodologies or the scope of information we collect.
We have in the past and may in the future change our methodologies, the methodologies of companies we acquire, or the scope of information we collect. Such changes may result from identified deficiencies in current methodologies, development of more advanced methodologies, changes in our business plans or in industry standards or regulatory requirements, changes in technology used by websites, browsers, mobile applications, servers, or media we measure, integration of acquired companies or expressed or perceived needs of our customers, potential customers or partners. Any such changes or perceived changes, or our inability to accurately or adequately communicate to our customers and the media such changes and the potential implications of such changes on the data we have published or will publish in the future, may result in customer dissatisfaction, particularly if certain information is no longer collected or information collected in future periods is not comparable with information collected in prior periods. As a result of future methodology changes, some of our customers that may also supply us with data may decide not to continue buying products or services from us or may decide to discontinue providing us with their data to support our products. Such customers may elect to publicly air their dissatisfaction with the methodological changes made by us, which may damage our brand and harm our reputation.
If we are not able to maintain panels of sufficient size and scope, or if the costs of establishing and maintaining our panels materially increase, our business could be harmed.
We believe that the quality, size and scope of our research panels are important to our business. In recent years, however, panel participation has declined, in part due to changes by software providers that have made it more difficult to obtain consent to participate in panels. At the same time, the cost of recruiting new panelists has increased. Although we have taken steps to mitigate the impact of
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these changes on our business, there can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain panels of sufficient size and scope to provide the quality of marketing intelligence that our customers demand from our products. We anticipate that the cost of panel recruitment will continue to increase with the proliferation of proprietary and secure media content delivery platforms and evolving regulatory requirements, and that the difficulty in collecting these forms of data will continue to grow, which may require significant hardware and software investments, as well as increases to our panel incentive and panel management costs. To the extent that such additional expenses are not accompanied by increased revenues, our operating margins may be reduced and our financial results could be adversely affected. If we are unable to maintain panels of sufficient size and scope, we could face negative consequences, including degradation in the quality of our products, failure to receive accreditation from industry associations, loss of customers and damage to our brand.
We derive a significant portion of our revenues from sales of our subscription-based products. If our customers terminate or fail to renew their subscriptions, our business could suffer.
We currently derive a significant portion of our revenues from our syndicated products, which are typically one-year subscription-based products. This has generally provided us with recurring revenue due to high renewal rates among our enterprise customers; however, syndicated digital revenue from our smaller and international customers has declined in recent years. If additional customers terminate their subscriptions for our products, do not renew their subscriptions, delay renewals of their subscriptions or renew on terms less favorable to us, our revenues could decline and our business could suffer.
Our customers have no obligation to renew after the expiration of their initial subscription period, and we cannot be assured that current subscriptions will be renewed at the same or higher dollar amounts, if at all. Furthermore, our newer products, for which revenue is recognized based on impressions used, may be subject to higher fluctuations in revenue. Our customer renewal rates may decline or fluctuate due to a number of factors, including customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with our products, the costs or functionality of our products, the prices or functionality of products offered by our competitors, the health of the advertising marketplace and the industries in which we operate (particularly in light of COVID-19), mergers and acquisitions affecting our customer base, general economic conditions or reductions in our customers' spending levels.
Our growth depends upon our ability to retain existing large customers and add new large customers. To the extent we are not successful in doing so, our ability to grow revenue and attain profitability and positive cash flow may be impaired.
Our success depends in part on our ability to sell our products to large customers and on the renewal of subscriptions and contracts with these customers in subsequent years. For the years ended 2021, 2020 and 2019, we derived 35%, 30% and 27%, respectively, of our total revenues from our top 10 customers. Uncertain economic conditions, changes in the regulatory environment or other factors, such as the failure or consolidation of large customer companies, internal reorganization or changes in focus, or dissatisfaction with our products, may cause certain large customers to terminate or reduce their subscriptions and contracts with us. The loss of any one or more of these customers could decrease our revenues and harm our current and future operating results. The addition of new large customers or increases in sales to existing large customers may require particularly long implementation periods and other significant upfront costs, which may adversely affect our profitability or divert resources from our other priorities. To compete effectively, we have in the past been, and may in the future be, forced to offer significant discounts to maintain existing customers or acquire other large customers. In addition, we may be forced to reduce or withdraw from our relationships with certain existing customers or refrain from acquiring certain new customers in order to acquire or maintain relationships with important large customers. As a result, new large customers or increased usage of our products by large customers may cause our profits to decline, and our ability to sell our products to other customers could be adversely affected.
If we are unable to effectively persuade customers to buy our products in substitution for those of an incumbent services provider, our revenue growth may suffer.
Some of our products require that we persuade prospective customers, or customers of our existing products, to buy our products in substitution for those of an incumbent service provider. In some instances, the customer may have built their systems and processes around the incumbent provider's products. Persuading such customers to switch service providers may be difficult and require longer sales cycles, affecting our ability to increase revenue in these areas. Moreover, the incumbent service provider may have the ability to significantly discount its services or enter into long-term agreements, which could further impede our ability to persuade customers to switch service providers, and accordingly, our ability to increase our revenues.
We may expand through investments in, acquisitions of, or the development of new products with assistance from, other companies, any of which may not be successful and may divert our management's attention.
In the past, we completed several strategic acquisitions, most recently our acquisition of Shareablee in 2021. We also may evaluate and enter into discussions regarding an array of potential strategic transactions, including acquiring complementary products, technologies or businesses. An acquisition, investment or business relationship may involve significant operating challenges, expenditures and risks. In particular, we may encounter difficulties integrating the businesses, data, technologies, products, personnel or operations of the acquired companies, particularly if the key personnel of the acquired company choose not to be employed by us, and we may have difficulty retaining the customers and partners of any acquired business due to changes in management and ownership. Acquisitions may also disrupt our ongoing business, divert our resources and require significant management attention that would otherwise be available for ongoing development of our business. Moreover, we cannot guarantee that the anticipated benefits of
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any acquisition, investment or business relationship would be realized timely, if at all, or that we would not be exposed to unknown liabilities. In connection with any such transaction, we may:
encounter difficulties retaining key employees of the acquired company or integrating diverse business cultures, particularly in countries where we have not previously had employees;
incur large charges or substantial liabilities, including without limitation, liabilities associated with products or technologies accused or found to infringe on third-party intellectual property or contractual rights or violate existing or future privacy or security regulations;
issue shares of our capital stock as part of the consideration, which has been and may be dilutive to existing stockholders;
become subject to adverse tax consequences, legal disputes, substantial depreciation or deferred compensation charges;
use cash that we may otherwise need for ongoing or future operation of our business or dividends;
enter new geographic markets that subject us to different laws and regulations that may have an adverse impact on our business;
experience difficulties effectively utilizing acquired assets or obtaining required third-party consents;
encounter difficulties integrating the information and financial reporting systems of acquired businesses, particularly those that operated under accounting principles other than those generally accepted in the U.S. prior to the acquisition by us; and
incur debt, which may be on terms unfavorable to us or that we are unable to repay.
We also have entered into relationships with certain third-party providers to expand our product offerings, and we may enter into similar arrangements in the future. These or other future relationships or transactions may involve preferred or exclusive licenses, discount pricing, provision of our products and services without charge, or investments in other businesses to expand our sales capabilities. These transactions could be material to our financial condition and results of operations, and though these transactions may provide additional benefits, they may not be profitable immediately or in the long term. Negotiating any such transactions could be time-consuming, difficult and expensive, and our ability to close these transactions may be subject to regulatory or other approvals and other conditions that are beyond our control. Consequently, we can make no assurances that any such transactions, investments or relationships, if undertaken and announced, would be completed or successful. The impact of any one or more of these factors could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
System failures, security breaches or delays in the operation of our computer and communications systems may harm our business.
Our success depends on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of our computer and communications systems and the third-party data centers, cloud providers and SAAS platforms we use. Our ability to collect and report accurate data may be interrupted by a number of factors, including the failure of our network or software systems, computer viruses, security breaches, or variability in the information we ingest.
Our product, information technology and security teams regularly review our systems and security posture and evaluate ways to enhance our processes and controls. In addition, our board of directors and audit committee receive quarterly updates on developments in information technology, security and data governance, we regularly train our employees on information security and related risks, and we conduct third-party audits on our security program (ISO 27001). Nevertheless, we cannot guarantee that a security incident will not occur or that any such incident will be timely detected or remediated. A security incident or failure of our network or data gathering procedures, or those of our third-party data suppliers, could result in liability to the Company, impede the processing of data, cause the corruption or loss of data, prevent the timely delivery of our products, or damage our brand and reputation.
In the future, we may need to expand our network and systems at a more rapid pace than we have in the past. Our network or systems may not be capable of meeting the demand for increased capacity, or we may incur additional expenses to accommodate these capacity demands. In addition, we may lose valuable data or be unable to obtain or provide data on a timely basis or our network may temporarily shut down if we fail to adequately expand or maintain our network capabilities to meet future requirements. Any lapse in our ability to collect or transmit data may decrease the value of our products and prevent us from providing the data requested by our customers and partners. Any disruption in our data processing or any loss, exposure or misuse of internet user data may damage our reputation and result in the loss of customers, partners and vendors and the imposition of penalties or other legal or regulatory action, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
We are subject to customer and partner security reviews, and failure to pass these reviews could have an adverse impact on our operations.
Many of our customer and partner contracts require that we maintain certain physical and/or information security standards. Any failure to meet such standards could have an adverse impact on our business. In certain cases, we permit a customer or partner to audit our compliance with contractual standards. Negative findings in an audit and/or the failure to adequately remediate in a timely fashion such negative findings could cause customers or partners to terminate their contracts or otherwise have an adverse effect on our reputation, results of operations and financial condition. Further, customers or partners from time to time may require new or stricter physical or information security than they negotiated in their contracts and may condition continued volumes and business on the
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satisfaction of such additional requirements. Some of these requirements may be expensive to implement or maintain and may not be factored into our contract pricing. Failure to meet these requirements could have an adverse effect on our business.
We rely on a small number of third-party service providers to host and deliver our products, and any interruptions or delays in services from these third parties could impair the delivery of our products and harm our business.
We host some of our products and serve our customers from data center facilities located throughout the U.S. While we operate our equipment inside these facilities, we do not control the operation of these facilities, and, depending on service level requirements and costs, we may not continue to operate or maintain redundant data center facilities for all of our products or for all of our data, which could increase our vulnerability. These facilities are vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, fires, power loss, telecommunications failures and similar events. They are also subject to break-ins, computer viruses, security breaches, sabotage, intentional acts of vandalism and other misconduct. A natural disaster or an act of terrorism, a decision to close the facilities without adequate notice, or other unanticipated problems could result in lengthy interruptions in availability of our products. We may also encounter capacity limitations at our third-party data centers. Additionally, our data center facility agreements are of limited durations, and our data center facilities have no obligation to renew their agreements with us on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. We believe that we have good relationships with our data center facility vendors and believe that we will be able to renew, or find alternative data center facilities, on commercially reasonable terms, although there can be no guarantee of this. If we are unable to renew our agreements with the owners of the facilities on commercially reasonable terms, or if we migrate to a new data center, we may experience delays in delivering our products until an agreement with another data center facility can be arranged or the migration to a new facility is completed.
If we or the third-party data centers that we use were to experience a major power outage, we would have to rely on back-up generators, which may not function properly, and their supply may be inadequate. Such a power outage could result in the disruption of our business. Additionally, if our current facilities fail to have sufficient cooling capacity or availability of electrical power, we would need to find alternative facilities and could experience delays in delivering our products.
We have engaged in an initiative to transform certain data collection, processing and delivery systems from traditional data centers to cloud-based platforms. The migration of these processes requires significant time and resources from our management, technology and operations personnel and introduces new requirements for security, financial and software development controls. This initiative may divert resources from other priorities, which could have a negative impact on our revenue and growth opportunities. In addition, our existing personnel may lack experience in cloud-based platform services, processes and controls and may require additional training, or we may need to hire additional personnel with the requisite skills and experience, which we may be unable to do on reasonable terms or at all. If the migration of these processes is not successful, or if the initiative takes longer or requires more resources than we anticipate, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
We currently leverage a large content delivery network ("CDN"), to provide services that allow us to offer a more accurate measurement methodology. If that network faced an outage or breach or the service became unavailable, an alternate CDN provider or additional capacity in our data centers would need to be established to support the large volume of tag requests that we currently manage, which would either require additional investments in equipment and facilities or a transition plan. This could unexpectedly raise our costs and could contribute to delays or losses in tag data that could affect the quality and reputation of our Media Metrix, vCE, cross-platform and other products that involve the measurement of a large amount of digitally transmitted activity across multiple providers.
We depend on access to the internet through third-party bandwidth providers to operate our business. If we lose the services of one or more of our bandwidth providers for any reason, we could experience disruption in the delivery of our products or be required to retain the services of a replacement bandwidth provider. It may be difficult for us to replace any lost bandwidth on a timely basis, on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, due to the large amount of bandwidth our operations require.
Any errors, defects, breaches, disruptions or other performance problems related to our products or the delivery of our services caused by third parties could reduce our revenues, harm our reputation, result in the loss of customers, partners and vendors and the imposition of penalties or other legal or regulatory actions and otherwise damage our business. Interruptions in the availability of our products and the delivery of our services may reduce our revenues due to increased turnaround time to complete projects, cause us to issue credits or refunds to customers, cause customers to terminate their agreements or adversely affect our renewal rates. Our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially and adversely affected if there were errors or delays in delivering our products or services, including for reasons beyond our control, and our reputation would be harmed if our customers or potential customers believe our products and services are unreliable.
We rely heavily on our management team, and other personnel to operate and grow our business. The loss of one or more key employees, the inability to attract and retain qualified personnel, or the failure to integrate new personnel could harm our business.
Our success and future growth depend to a significant degree on the skills and continued services of our management team. Our future success also depends on our ability to retain, attract and motivate highly skilled technical, managerial, sales and marketing personnel. The market for these personnel is extremely competitive, particularly for software engineers, data scientists and other technical staff, and like many companies in our industry, we have faced higher rates of attrition in recent years. If we cannot retain highly skilled
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workers and key leaders, our ability to develop and deliver our products and increase our revenues may be materially and adversely affected. If we must increase employee compensation and benefits in order to remain competitive for these personnel, our operating costs and financial condition may be adversely affected. Recruiting and training costs may also place significant demands on our resources. We may experience a loss of productivity due to the departure of key personnel and the associated loss of institutional knowledge, or while new personnel integrate into our business and transition into their respective roles. Failure to ensure effective transitions and knowledge transfers may adversely affect our operations and our ability to execute on our strategic plans and growth initiatives.
The effectiveness of our equity awards as a means to recruit and retain key personnel has diminished, and we may need to grant equity awards outside of our existing plan.
Historically, we have relied on equity awards as one means of recruiting and retaining key personnel, including our senior management. Due to declines in our stock price in recent years, the effectiveness of our outstanding equity awards as a means to retain key personnel has diminished. Moreover, the quantity of equity awards we are able to grant under our 2018 Equity and Incentive Compensation Plan ("2018 Plan") is limited. These limits have impacted our ability to offer new awards to current and prospective employees, which in turn has contributed to employee retention and hiring challenges. In order to address our compensation needs, we may seek to amend our 2018 Plan to increase the number of shares available for future equity awards, or we may need to consider granting equity awards outside of our 2018 Plan, as we did with a recent executive hire. Either of these options would result in additional dilution to our existing stockholders. Alternatively, we may need to shift a larger portion of employee compensation to cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition.
Risks Related to Our Results of Operations
Our revenues and results of operations may fluctuate in the future. As a result, we may fail to meet or exceed the expectations of securities analysts or investors, which could cause our stock price to decline.
Our results of operations may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. If our revenues or results of operations do not meet or exceed the expectations of securities analysts or investors, the price of our Common Stock could decline substantially. Factors that may cause fluctuations in our revenues or results of operations include:
our ability to increase sales to existing customers and attract new customers in the current economic environment;
our ability to respond to changes in our customers' businesses and consumer behavior resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic;
the potential loss or reduction in spending by significant customers;
changes in our customers' subscription renewal behaviors and spending on projects, particularly custom projects;
the impact of our contract renewal rates caused by our customers' budgetary constraints, pandemic-related factors, competition, customer dissatisfaction, customer corporate restructuring, or our customers' actual or perceived lack of need for our products;
the timing of contract renewals, delivery of products and duration of contracts and the corresponding timing of revenue recognition;
the challenges of persuading existing and prospective customers to switch from incumbent service providers;
the timing of revenue recognition for usage-based or impression-based products;
the effect of revenues generated from significant one-time projects or the loss of such projects;
the timing and success of new product introductions or changes in methodology by us or our competitors;
the impact of our Preferred Stock transactions, including our long-term data license with Charter, on our revenues and cost of revenues;
changes in our pricing and discounting policies or those of our competitors;
the impact of our decision to discontinue certain products;
our failure to accurately estimate or control costs, including those incurred as a result of business or product development initiatives, legal proceedings, strategic or financing transactions, and the integration of acquired businesses;
the cost and availability of data from third-party sources and the cost to integrate such data into our systems and products and implement new use cases;
adverse judgments or settlements, or increased legal fees, in legal disputes or government proceedings;
costs incurred in connection with corporate transactions, including financial advisory, legal, accounting, consulting and other advisory fees and expenses;
service of our existing debt and incurrence of additional debt;
the amount and timing of capital expenditures and operating costs related to the maintenance and expansion of our operations and infrastructure;
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service outages, other technical difficulties or security breaches;
limitations relating to the capacity of our networks, systems and processes;
maintaining appropriate staffing levels and capabilities relative to projected growth;
limitations on our ability to use equity awards to compensate current and prospective employees;
the cost and timing of organizational restructuring;
the risks associated with operating in countries in which we may have little or no previous experience and with maintaining or reorganizing corporate entity structures in international jurisdictions;
the extent to which certain expenses are deductible for tax purposes, such as share-based compensation that fluctuates based on the timing of vesting and our stock price;
the timing of any changes to our deferred tax valuation allowance;
adoption of new accounting pronouncements;
changes in the fair value of our financing derivatives and warrants, contingent consideration, market volatility or management assumptions; and
general economic, political, regulatory, industry and market conditions and those conditions specific to internet usage and online businesses.
We believe that our revenues and results of operations on a year-over-year and sequential quarter-over-quarter basis may vary significantly in the future and that period-to-period comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful. Investors are cautioned not to rely on the results of prior periods as an indication of future performance.
We may not be able to generate or obtain sufficient cash to service our debt, dividend obligations, lease facilities and trade payables.
We currently have indebtedness and lease facilities, as well as trade payables, including expenses incurred in prior periods. In addition, we are required to pay annual cash dividends on our Preferred Stock, and we may incur additional debt for operations or to fund a special dividend to the holders of our Preferred Stock. These obligations could require us to use a large portion of our cash flow from operations to service our debt, dividend obligations and lease facilities and pay accrued expenses. They could also limit our flexibility to invest in our business and adjust to market conditions, which could impact our customer relationships and place us at a competitive disadvantage.
We expect to obtain the funds to pay our expenses and meet our financial obligations from cash flow from our operations and, potentially, from other debt and/or equity offerings. Accordingly, our ability to meet our obligations depends on our future performance and capital-raising activities, which will be affected by financial, business, contractual, economic and other factors, some of which are beyond our control. Failure to meet our payment obligations to vendors could disrupt our supply of goods and services and impact our reputation, creditworthiness and relations with customers. It could also lead to costly litigation. Failure to meet our dividend payment obligations could result in an increase in the annual dividend rate, among other things.
If our cash flow and capital resources prove inadequate to allow us to pay the interest and principal on our debt when due and meet our other financial obligations, we could face substantial liquidity challenges and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations, restructure or refinance our debt (which we may be unable to do on acceptable terms) or forego attractive business opportunities. In addition, the terms of our existing or future financing agreements and Preferred Stock may restrict us from pursuing these alternatives. Failure to meet our financial obligations could have important consequences including, potentially, forcing us into bankruptcy or liquidation.
Our financial condition and results of operations could suffer and be adversely affected if we incur an impairment of goodwill or other intangible assets.
We are required to test goodwill and intangible assets, annually and on an interim basis if an event occurs or there is a change in circumstance that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of our reporting unit below its carrying values or indicate that the carrying value of such intangibles is not recoverable. When the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, a charge to operations, up to the total amount of goodwill, is recorded. If the carrying amount of an intangible asset is not recoverable, a charge to operations is recognized. Either event would result in incremental expenses for that period, which would reduce any earnings or increase any loss for the period in which the impairment was determined to have occurred. We recorded a $224.3 million impairment charge related to goodwill and a $17.3 million impairment charge for our strategic alliance intangible asset in 2019. We recorded a $4.7 million impairment charge related to our right-of-use ("ROU") assets, and related leasehold improvements, during 2020.
Our impairment analysis is sensitive to changes in key assumptions used in our analysis, such as expected future cash flows, the degree of volatility in equity and debt markets and our stock price. Additionally, changes in our strategy or significant technical developments could significantly impact the recoverability of our intangible assets. If the assumptions used in our analysis are not realized, it is possible that an additional impairment charge may need to be recorded in the future.
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Changes in the fair value of our derivative financial instruments, warrants or contingent consideration could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Our financing derivatives, warrants, and contingent consideration related to our acquisition of Shareablee are classified as liabilities in our consolidated financial statements. We use various models and assumptions to determine the fair value of these liabilities, including assumptions with respect to market rates, the price and volatility of our Common Stock, the probability of occurrence of certain events, and term. Any change in our assumptions could result in a change in the fair value of our derivative liabilities, warrants and contingent consideration, which would be recorded to earnings and could significantly affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We may encounter difficulties managing our costs, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
We believe that we will need to continue to effectively manage our organization, operations and facilities in order to accommodate changes in our business and to successfully integrate acquired data and businesses. If we continue to change or grow, either organically or through acquired businesses, our current systems and facilities may not be adequate and may need to be expanded or reduced. For example, we may be required to enter into leases for additional facilities or commit to significant investments in the build out of current or new facilities, or we may need to renegotiate or terminate leases to reflect changes in our business and workforce. If we are unable to effectively forecast our facilities needs or if we are unable to sublease or terminate leases for unused space, we may experience increased and unexpected costs. Moreover, our need to effectively manage our operations and cost structure requires that we continue to assess and improve our operational, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures.
From time to time, as a result of acquisition integration initiatives, or through efforts to improve or streamline our operations, we have reduced our workforce or reassigned personnel, and we may do so in the future. Such actions may expose us to disruption by dissatisfied employees or employee-related claims, including claims by terminated employees who believe they are owed more compensation than we believe these employees are due under our compensation and benefit plans, or claims maintained internationally in jurisdictions whose laws and procedures differ from those in the U.S.
If we are not able to efficiently and effectively manage our cost structure and resolve employee-related claims, or if we are unable to manage our space to support our needs, our business may be impaired.
We have a history of significant net losses, may incur significant net losses in the future and may not achieve profitability.
We incurred net losses of $50.0 million, $47.9 million and $339.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. We cannot make assurances that we will be able to achieve profitability in the future. As of December 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $1,218.7 million. Because a large portion of our costs are fixed, we may not be able to adequately reduce our expenses in response to any decrease in our revenues, which would materially and adversely affect our operating results. In addition, our operating expenses may increase as we implement certain growth initiatives, which include, among other things, the development of new products and enhancements of our data assets and infrastructure. If our revenues do not increase to offset these increases in costs and operating expenses, our operating results would be materially and adversely affected.
Our net operating loss carryforwards may expire unutilized or underutilized, which could prevent us from offsetting future taxable income.
Under the provisions of Internal Revenue Code Section 382, certain substantial changes in the Company's ownership may result in a limitation on the amount of U.S. net operating loss carryforwards that can be utilized annually to offset future taxable income and taxes payable. A significant portion of our net operating loss carryforwards are subject to an annual limitation under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code. We anticipate the Transactions may have triggered further limitations, but we have not yet reached a final conclusion as to whether an ownership change occurred and to what extent our carryforwards are further limited.
As of December 31, 2021, we estimate our U.S. federal and state net operating loss carryforwards for tax purposes were $620.0 million and $1,403.0 million, respectively, subject to limitation as described above. These net operating loss carryforwards will begin to expire in 2023 for federal income tax reporting purposes and in 2022 for state income tax reporting purposes. The federal and certain state net operating losses generated after December 31, 2017 have an indefinite carryforward period as a result of the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("TCJA"). As of December 31, 2021, we estimate our aggregate net operating loss carryforwards for tax purposes related to our foreign subsidiaries were $5.4 million, which will begin to expire in 2024.
We apply a valuation allowance to our deferred tax assets when management does not believe that it is more-likely-than-not that they will be realized. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, we consider all sources of taxable income, including potential opportunities for loss carrybacks, the reversal of existing temporary differences associated with our deferred tax assets and liabilities, tax planning strategies and future taxable income. We also consider other evidence such as historical pre-tax book income in making the determination. As of December 31, 2021, we continue to have a valuation allowance recorded against the net deferred tax assets of our U.S. entities and certain foreign subsidiaries, including net operating loss carryforwards.
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We have limited experience with respect to our pricing model for certain offerings, and if the fees we charge for our products are unacceptable to customers, our revenues and operating results will be harmed.
Many of our customers purchase specifically tailored contracts that are priced in the aggregate. Due to the level of customization of such contracts, the pricing of contracts or individual product components of such packages may not be readily comparable across customers or periods. Existing and potential customers may have difficulty assessing the value of our products and services when comparing them to competing products and services. As the market for our products matures, or as competitors introduce new products or services that compete with ours, we may be unable to renew our agreements with existing customers or attract new customers with the fees we have historically charged. As a result, it is possible that future competitive dynamics in our market may require us to reduce our fees, which could have an adverse effect on our revenues, profitability and operating results.
Risks Related to Legal and Regulatory Compliance, Litigation and Tax Matters
Concern over privacy violations and data breaches could lead to public relations problems, regulatory scrutiny and class action lawsuits, which could harm our business.
We are subject to data privacy and protection laws and regulations that apply to the collection, transmission, storage and use of proprietary information and personal information. The regulatory environment surrounding information security and data privacy varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and is constantly evolving and increasingly demanding. The restrictions imposed by such laws continue to develop and may require us to incur substantial costs and fines or adopt additional compliance measures, such as notification requirements and corrective actions.
Any perception of our practices, products or services as a violation of individual privacy rights may subject us to public criticism, loss of customers, partners or vendors, class action lawsuits, reputational harm, or investigations or claims by regulators, industry groups or other third parties, all of which could significantly disrupt our business and expose us to increased liability. Additionally, laws regulating privacy and third-party products purporting to address privacy concerns could negatively affect the functionality of, and demand for, our products and services, thereby resulting in loss of customers, partners and vendors and harm to our business.
We also rely on security questionnaires and contractual representations made to us by customers, partners, vendors and other third-party data providers that their own use of our services and the information they provide to us do not violate any applicable privacy laws, rules and regulations or their own privacy or security policies. As a component of our client contracts, we obligate customers to provide their consumers the opportunity to obtain the appropriate level of consent (including opt outs) for the information collection associated with our services, as applicable, or provide another appropriate legal basis for collection. If these questionnaires or representations are false, inaccurate or incomplete, or if our customers, partners, vendors and other third-party data providers do not otherwise comply with applicable privacy laws or security practices, we could face adverse publicity and possible legal or regulatory action.
Outside parties, including foreign actors, may attempt to fraudulently induce our employees or users of our solutions to disclose sensitive information via illegal electronic spamming, phishing, threats or other tactics. Unauthorized parties may also attempt to gain physical access to our information systems. This risk may be heightened in U.S. election years, particularly from foreign governments and other foreign actors. Any breach of our security measures or the accidental loss, inadvertent disclosure or unauthorized dissemination of proprietary information or sensitive, personal or confidential data about us, our employees or our customers, partners or vendors, including the potential loss or disclosure of such information or data as a result of hacking, fraud, trickery or other forms of deception, could expose us, our employees, our customers or the individuals affected to risks of loss or misuse of this information. Any actual or potential breach of our security measures may result in litigation and potential liability or fines, governmental inquiry or oversight or a loss of customer confidence, any of which could harm our business and damage our brand and reputation, possibly impeding our present and future success in retaining and attracting new customers and thereby requiring time and resources to repair our brand.
Domestic or foreign laws, regulations or enforcement actions may limit our ability to collect and incorporate media usage information in our products, which may decrease their value and cause an adverse impact on our business and financial results.
Our business could be adversely impacted by existing or future laws, regulations or actions by domestic or foreign regulatory agencies, or by our customers' or partners' efforts to comply with these laws. For example, privacy, data protection and personal information, intellectual property, advertising, data security, data retention and deletion, protection of minors, consumer protection, economic or other trade prohibitions or sanctions concerns could lead to legislative, judicial and regulatory limitations on our or our partners' ability to collect, maintain and use information about consumers' behavior or media consumption in the U.S. and abroad. This could impact the amount and quality of data in our products.
State and federal laws within the U.S. and foreign laws and regulations are varied, and at times conflicting, resulting in higher risk related to compliance. A number of laws coming into effect and/or proposals pending before federal, state and foreign legislative and regulatory bodies have affected and are likely to continue to affect our business. For example, the European Union's ("EU") General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, became effective in May 2018, imposing more stringent EU data protection requirements and providing for greater penalties for noncompliance. In addition, regulators in the EU and elsewhere are increasingly focused on consent and the collection of data using tracking technologies, and cross-border data transfers. Adding further uncertainty is the UK's
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departure from the EU, commonly referred to as Brexit. As another example, Brazil enacted the General Data Protection Law, and the State of California enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act ("CCPA"). The CCPA, which went into effect in January 2020, expanded the scope of what is considered "personal information" and created new data access and opt-out rights for consumers, which are impacting Comscore and other companies that operate in California, including many of our customers and partners. Beginning in January 2023, three new state privacy laws (and related regulations) are scheduled to come into effect. The California Privacy Rights Act of 2020, or CPRA, is scheduled to become fully operative on January 1, 2023, substantially expanding the CCPA; the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act is scheduled to become effective on January 1, 2023; and the Colorado Privacy Act is scheduled to become effective on July 1, 2023. These U.S. federal and state and foreign laws and regulations, which in some cases can be enforced by private parties in addition to government entities, are constantly evolving and can be subject to significant change.
We have implemented policies and procedures to comply with GDPR, CCPA, the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act ("COPPA") and other laws, and we continue to evaluate and implement processes and enhancements and monitor changes in laws and regulations. However, the application, interpretation, and enforcement of these laws and regulations are often uncertain, particularly in the rapidly evolving industries in which we operate, and may be interpreted and applied inconsistently from country to country, state to state, and customer to customer, and inconsistently with our current policies and practices. Additionally, the costs of compliance with, and the other burdens imposed by, these and other laws, regulatory actions and customer or partner policies may prevent us from selling our products and have and may continue to increase the costs associated with selling our products, and may affect our ability to invest in or jointly develop products in the U.S. and in foreign jurisdictions. In addition, failure to comply with these and other laws and regulations may result in, among other things, administrative enforcement actions and substantial fines, class action lawsuits, contractual breaches, significant legal fees, and civil and criminal liability. Any regulatory or civil action that is brought against us, even if unsuccessful, may distract our management's attention, divert our resources, negatively affect our public image or reputation among our panelists, customers, partners and vendors, and harm our business.
An assertion from a third party that we are infringing its intellectual property rights, whether such assertion is valid or not, could subject us to costly and time-consuming litigation or expensive licenses.
The media measurement, software and technology industries are characterized by the existence of a large number of patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets and by frequent litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights, domestically or internationally. As we grow, evolve our products and methodologies, and face increasing competition, the probability that one or more third parties will make intellectual property rights claims against us increases. In such cases, our products, technologies or methodologies may be found to infringe on the intellectual property rights of others. Additionally, many of our agreements may require us to indemnify our customers for third-party intellectual property infringement claims, which would increase our costs if we have to defend such claims and may require that we pay damages and provide alternative services if there were an adverse ruling in any such claims. Intellectual property claims could harm our relationships with our customers, deter future customers from buying our products or expose us to litigation, which could be expensive and divert considerable attention of our management team from the normal operation of our business. Even if we are not a party to any litigation between a customer and a third party, an adverse outcome in any such litigation could make it more difficult for us to defend against intellectual property claims by the third party in any subsequent litigation in which we are a named party. Any of these results could adversely affect our brand, business and results of operations.
With respect to any intellectual property rights claim against us or our customers, we may have to pay damages or stop using technology or methodologies found to be in violation of a third party's rights. We may have to seek a license for the technology, which may not be available on reasonable terms or at all, may significantly increase our operating expenses or may significantly restrict our business activities in one or more respects. We may also be required to develop alternative non-infringing technology or methodologies, which could require significant effort and expense. Any of these outcomes could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Even if we prove successful in defending ourselves against such claims, we may incur substantial expenses and the defense of such claims may divert considerable attention of our management team from the normal operation of our business.
The success of our business depends in large part on our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights.
We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, service mark, trademark and trade secret laws, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual restrictions, to establish and protect our proprietary rights, all of which provide only limited protection. We endeavor to enter into agreements with our employees and contractors and with parties with whom we do business in order to limit access to and disclosure of our proprietary information. We cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will prevent unauthorized use of our technology or the reverse engineering of our technology. Moreover, we may not have adequate resources to devote to obtaining new intellectual property protection for our technology and products, defending our existing rights, or maintaining the security of our know-how and data. We cannot make assurances that any additional patents will be issued with respect to any of our pending or future patent applications, nor can we assure that any patent issued to us will provide adequate protection, or that any patents issued to us will not be challenged, invalidated, circumvented, or held to be unenforceable in actions against alleged infringers. Also, we cannot make assurances that any future trademark or service mark registrations will be issued with respect to pending or future applications or that any of our registered trademarks and service marks will be enforceable or provide adequate protection of our proprietary rights. If we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights, or if we must engage in costly and time-consuming litigation to enforce our rights, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
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Our use of open source software could limit our ability to sell our products, subject our code to public disclosure or require us to reengineer our products.
We use open source software in certain of our products, and it is also contained in some third-party software that we license. There are many types of open source licenses, some of which have not been interpreted or adjudicated by U.S. or other courts. Our use of open source licenses could limit our ability to sell our products or subject our proprietary code to public disclosure if not properly managed. Remediation of such issues may involve licensing software on costly or unfavorable terms or reengineering our products, either of which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject to taxation in multiple jurisdictions. Any adverse development in the tax laws of any of these jurisdictions or any disagreement with our tax positions could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We are subject to taxation in, and to the tax laws and regulations of, multiple jurisdictions as a result of the international scope of our operations and our corporate entity structure. We are also subject to transfer pricing laws with respect to our intercompany transactions, including those relating to the flow of funds among our companies. Adverse developments in these laws or regulations, or any change in position regarding the application, administration or interpretation thereof, in any applicable jurisdiction, could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, the tax authorities in any applicable jurisdiction, including the U.S., may disagree with the positions we have taken or intend to take regarding the tax treatment or characterization of any of our transactions. If any applicable tax authorities, including U.S. tax authorities, were to successfully challenge the tax treatment or characterization of any of our transactions, it could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The current U.S. presidential administration has made various proposals that, if enacted, would cause significant changes to existing tax law, in particular, an increase in U.S. federal income taxes on corporations and the tax rate on foreign earnings. Additionally, longstanding international tax norms that determine each country's jurisdiction to tax cross-border international trade are subject to potential evolution. In connection with the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Integrated Framework provided by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ("OECD"), the OECD recently reached an agreement to align countries on a minimum corporate tax rate and expand taxing rights of market countries. As a result of this agreement, the determination of multi-jurisdictional taxation rights and the rate of tax applicable to certain types of income may be subject to change. There can be no assurance that future changes to federal and state tax laws in the U.S. and foreign tax laws will not be proposed or enacted that could materially impact our business or financial results. If and when any of these changes are put into effect, they could result in tax increases where we do business both in and outside of the U.S. and could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations.
Taxing authorities may successfully assert that we should have collected or in the future should collect sales and use, value added or similar taxes, and we could be subject to liability with respect to past or future sales.
In certain cases, we have concluded that we do not need to collect sales and use, value added and similar taxes in jurisdictions in which we have sales. Certain jurisdictions in which we do not collect such taxes may assert that such taxes are applicable, which could result in tax assessments, penalties and interest, and we may be required to collect such taxes in the future. Such tax assessments, penalties and interest or future requirements may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to International Operations
Our business could become increasingly susceptible to risks associated with international operations.
Conducting international operations subjects us to risks that we generally do not face in the U.S. These risks include:
recruitment and maintenance of a sufficiently large and representative panel both globally and in certain countries;
difficulties and expenses associated with tailoring our products to local and international markets as may be required by local customers and joint industry committees or similar industry organizations;
difficulties in expanding the adoption of our server- or census-based web beacon data collection in certain countries or obtaining access to other necessary data sources;
the complexities and expense of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws and regulations, including the GDPR, LGPD, other privacy and data protection laws and regulations, and foreign anti-corruption laws, as well as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act;
difficulties in staffing and managing international operations, including complex and costly hiring, disciplinary, and termination requirements as well as third-party contracting arrangements;
the complexities of foreign value-added taxes and the repatriation of earnings, particularly following the enactment of the TCJA;
reduced or varied protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;
political, social and economic instability abroad, terrorist attacks and security concerns;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates; and
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increased accounting and reporting burdens and complexities.
Additionally, operating in international markets requires significant additional management attention and financial resources. We cannot be certain that the investments and additional resources required to establish and maintain operations in other countries will hold their value or produce desired levels of revenues or profitability. We cannot be certain that we will be able to comply with laws, rules, regulations or local guidelines to maintain and increase the size of the user panels that we currently have in various countries, that we will be able to recruit a representative sample for our audience measurement products or that we will be able to enter into arrangements with a sufficient number of website and mobile app content providers and/or television operators to allow us to collect information for inclusion in our products. In addition, governmental authorities in various countries have different views regarding regulatory oversight of the internet, data protection and consumer privacy. The impact of these risks could negatively affect our international business and, consequently, our financial condition and results of operations.
Export controls and economic and trade sanctions laws could impair our ability to compete in international markets and subject us to liability if we are not in full compliance with applicable laws.
Our business activities include the collection of data from panelists around the world, and such activities may be subject to various restrictions under U.S. export controls and economic and trade sanctions laws. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we could be subject to civil or criminal penalties and reputational harm.
Although we take precautions to prevent the collection of data from panelists in embargoed countries that may be subject to export controls and economic and trade sanctions under these laws and regulations, we have collected such data in the past, and there is a risk that we could collect such data in the future despite our precautions. We have implemented a number of additional screening and other measures designed to prevent such transactions with embargoed countries and other U.S. sanctions targets. Changes in the list of embargoed countries and regions or prohibited persons may require us to modify these procedures in order to comply with governmental regulations. Our failure to screen potential panelists properly could result in negative consequences to us, including government investigations, penalties and reputational harm, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Changes in foreign currencies could have a significant effect on our operating results.
We operate in several countries in Latin America, Europe and Asia. A portion of our revenues and expenses from business operations in foreign countries are derived from transactions denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of our operations in those countries. As such, we have exposure to adverse changes in exchange rates associated with revenues and operating expenses of our foreign operations, but we do not currently enter into any hedging instruments that hedge foreign currency exchange rate risk. If we grow our international operations, or acquire companies with established business in international regions, our exposure to foreign currency risk could become more significant.
Risks Related to Our Capital Structure and Financings
The holders of our Preferred Stock have significance influence over the Company, may prevent other stockholders from influencing significant corporate decisions, and may have interests that conflict with those of our other stockholders.
As described in Item 1, Business, on January 7, 2021, we entered into separate Series B Convertible Preferred Stock Purchase Agreements (collectively, the "Securities Purchase Agreements") with each of Charter, Qurate and Pine (collectively, the "Investors"). The issuance of securities pursuant to the Securities Purchase Agreements and related matters were approved by our stockholders on March 9, 2021 and completed on March 10, 2021. In connection with the Transactions, we also entered into a long-term data license with Charter, which was intended to enhance our ability to execute on our strategic plans and growth initiatives.
At the closing of the Transactions, the Preferred Stock was initially convertible into an aggregate of 82,527,609 shares of our Common Stock (subject to adjustment). On an as-converted basis, this collectively represented approximately 50.6% of our issued and outstanding Common Stock immediately following the closing (equating to approximately 16.9% per Investor), and the Investors became the largest stockholders of the Company. The Investors remained the largest stockholders of the Company as of December 31, 2021, with each Investor holding 16.3% of our issued and outstanding Common Stock on an as-converted basis. This concentration of ownership, together with the voting rights, director designation rights and consent rights described below, may be perceived negatively by other investors and, as a result, may adversely affect the market price of our Common Stock.
As of December 31, 2021, each Investor held 15.8% of the outstanding voting power of the Company on an as-converted basis. In addition, under the Stockholders Agreement that we entered into in connection with the Transactions, each Investor has the right to designate two directors to serve on our board of directors until the earlier of such time as the Investor (a) beneficially owns less than 50% of the shares of Preferred Stock held by such Investor as of the date of the closing (the "Initial Preferred Stock Ownership") as a result of the Investor's transfer of such shares to any of the other Investors or (b) beneficially owns voting stock representing less than 10% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock (on an as-converted basis), after which the Investor's designation rights will be reduced to one designee until such time as the Investor beneficially owns Voting Stock representing less than 5% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock (on an as-converted basis). Additionally, under certain circumstances, an Investor may gain additional board
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designation rights and in some instances, we may even be obligated to increase the size of our board to enable an Investor to designate one additional director nominee. As of the date of this 10-K, each Investor has designated two directors on our board of directors.
Pursuant to the Stockholders Agreement, each Investor has consent rights over certain significant matters of our business. These include, but are not limited to, decisions: (a) to amend our organizational documents; (b) to create, increase, reclassify, issue or sell any additional Preferred Stock; (c) to consummate a change of control transaction; (d) to create or issue indebtedness that would cause us to exceed a specified leverage ratio; (e) to increase or decrease the number of directors on our board of directors or certain committees thereof; (f) to change the nature of our business in any material respect; (g) to make certain changes to our management; (h) to declare cash dividends or distributions; (i) to enter into certain related-party transactions; and (j) to adopt certain shareholder rights plans. As a result, each Investor is able to influence fundamental corporate matters and transactions. The interests of the Investors may not always coincide with our interests or the interests of our other stockholders, and these consent rights may delay, deter or prevent acts that would be favored by our other stockholders. Also, the Investors may seek to cause us to take courses of action that, in their judgment, could enhance their investment in us, but which might involve risks to our other stockholders or adversely affect us or our other stockholders.
We may not be able to realize the anticipated benefits of the Transactions.
The anticipated benefits of the Transactions, including expected commercial benefits from the data license with Charter and other relationships and expertise from the Investors, may not be realized fully or may take longer to realize than we expect. Actual operating, strategic and revenue opportunities may be less significant than we expect or may take longer to achieve than we anticipate. If we are not able to achieve these objectives and realize the anticipated benefits from the Transactions, our business, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected.
The market value of our Common Stock could decline if the Investors sell their Preferred Stock or Common Stock after certain transfer restrictions expire.
Pursuant to the Stockholders Agreement, for one year following the closing (until March 10, 2022), subject to certain exceptions, each Investor is prohibited from selling any shares of Preferred Stock held by such Investor, including any shares of Common Stock issued or issuable upon conversion of the Preferred Stock. Thereafter, until the second anniversary of the closing (March 10, 2023), and subject to certain exceptions, each Investor has agreed not to sell more than 50% of such Investor's Initial Preferred Stock Ownership, including any shares of Common Stock issued or issuable upon conversion of such Preferred Stock. Pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement that we entered into in connection with the Transactions, we registered the resale of the shares of Preferred Stock and the shares of Common Stock underlying the Preferred Stock with the SEC, which means that such shares may be eligible for resale in the public markets following the expiration of applicable transfer restrictions. Any sale of such shares, or the anticipation of the possibility of such sales, could create downward pressure on the market price of our Common Stock.
Our credit facility may impact our ability to operate our business and secure additional financing in the future, and any failure to meet our debt obligations could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
On May 5, 2021, we entered into a senior secured revolving credit agreement (the "Revolving Credit Agreement") with a borrowing capacity of $25.0 million. On February 25, 2022, we amended the Revolving Credit Agreement to increase the borrowing capacity to $40.0 million. As of the date of this 10-K, we had borrowings and letters of credit outstanding under the Revolving Credit Agreement totaling $19.3 million. Amounts outstanding under the Revolving Credit Agreement bear interest at a rate per annum equal to the Daily SOFR (as defined in the Revolving Credit Agreement) plus 2.50%. In addition, the Revolving Credit Agreement provides for an unused commitment fee equal to 0.25% of the unused commitments. The Revolving Credit Agreement matures on May 5, 2024.
Servicing our indebtedness under the Revolving Credit Agreement could divert resources from other priorities, including investment in our products and operations and satisfaction of our outstanding trade payables. If our cash flow from operations is inadequate to allow us to pay the interest and principal on our debt when due and meet our other financial obligations, we could face substantial liquidity challenges.
Under the Revolving Credit Agreement, we are subject to restrictive covenants limiting our ability to, among other things, incur additional indebtedness, permit additional liens, make investments and loans, enter into mergers and acquisitions, make or declare dividends and other payments, enter into certain contracts, sell assets, and engage in transactions with affiliates. These covenants could limit our operating flexibility and cause us to forego attractive business opportunities, which could hurt our customer relationships and put us at a competitive disadvantage. The covenants also could prevent us from securing additional financing in the future, including to fund our operations, satisfy liabilities, or pay dividends to the holders of our Preferred Stock.
In addition, we are subject to financial covenants under the Revolving Credit Agreement, including a requirement to maintain minimum Consolidated EBITDA and a minimum Consolidated Asset Coverage Ratio for periods through December 31, 2022, and a minimum Consolidated Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio for periods after December 31, 2022 (each term as defined in the Revolving Credit Agreement). While we are currently in compliance with these covenants, there is no guarantee that we will be able to achieve our plans and remain in compliance in future periods. Moreover, our ability to comply with the covenants could be affected by economic, financial, competitive, regulatory and other factors beyond our control, including changes in consumer behavior or government mandates stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic.
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If we fail to meet our financial covenants or other obligations under the Revolving Credit Agreement, the lender(s) may accelerate any amounts outstanding under the Revolving Credit Agreement and may terminate their commitments to extend further credit. This could have important consequences for our company, including requiring us to restructure or refinance our debt (which we may be unable to do on acceptable terms or at all), dispose of assets or, potentially, enter into liquidation or bankruptcy.
We may require additional capital to support our business, and this capital may not be available on acceptable terms or at all.
We intend to continue to make investments to support our business growth and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges, including the need to develop new products or enhance our existing products, enhance our operating infrastructure, retain and hire key personnel, and acquire complementary businesses and technologies. In addition, holders of our Preferred Stock have certain dividend rights, including the right to request a special dividend. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of our Common Stock. Any financing secured by us in the future could include restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions.
As a result of our settlement with the SEC relating to financial accounting and disclosure practices between February 2014 and February 2016, we are currently subject to a "bad actor" disqualification and are unable to rely on certain exemptions from registration under the federal securities laws, including Regulation D. In addition, we are an "ineligible issuer" as the term is defined under Rule 405 promulgated under the Securities Act. This could make it more difficult for us to raise necessary financing in the future.
Capital and credit market conditions, adverse events affecting our business or industry, the tightening of lending standards, rising interest rates, negative actions by regulatory authorities or rating agencies, or other factors also could negatively impact our ability to obtain future financing on terms acceptable to us or at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, our ability to support our business growth, meet our dividend payment obligations, and respond to business challenges could be significantly limited. In addition, the terms of any additional equity or debt issuances may adversely affect the value and price of our Common Stock, our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
General Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
The Company's outstanding securities, the stock or securities that we may become obligated to issue under existing or future agreements, and certain provisions of those securities, may cause immediate and substantial dilution to our existing stockholders.
Our existing stockholders have and may continue to experience substantial dilution as a result of our obligations to issue shares of Common Stock. As of December 31, 2021, our Preferred Stock was convertible into an aggregate of 85,708,361 shares of Common Stock at the election of the holders. Furthermore, we have reserved 5,457,026 shares of Common Stock for issuance pursuant to our Series A Warrants. We have also issued 7,945,519 shares of Common Stock for distribution to the selling stockholders of Shareablee (which we acquired in December 2021), and we have reserved 121,360 shares of Common Stock in connection with a working capital adjustment holdback. In addition, we may elect to pay any deferred consideration due to the Shareablee sellers in 2022 and future years in shares of Common Stock.
As of December 31, 2021, 1,783,055 shares of Common Stock were reserved for issuance pursuant to outstanding stock options under our equity incentive plans (including stock option awards we assumed in the Shareablee acquisition), 4,030,243 shares of Common Stock were reserved for issuance pursuant to outstanding restricted stock unit awards under our equity incentive plans (including assumed Shareablee awards), and an aggregate of 3,230,941 shares of Common Stock were available for future equity awards under our 2018 Equity and Incentive Compensation Plan and acquired Shareablee plan. An additional 451,977 shares were reserved for issuance pursuant to a restricted stock unit inducement award we granted in 2021.
The issuance of shares of Common Stock (i) upon the conversion of our Preferred Stock, (ii) upon the exercise of warrants, (iii) as deferred consideration to the Shareablee sellers, (iv) pursuant to outstanding and future equity awards, or (v) upon the conversion of other existing or future convertible securities, may result in substantial dilution to each of our stockholders by reducing that stockholder's percentage ownership of our outstanding Common Stock.
Provisions in our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and under Delaware law might discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our Common Stock.
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could depress the trading price of our Common Stock by acting to discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our management that the stockholders of our company may deem advantageous. These provisions:
provide for a classified board of directors so that not all members of our board are elected at one time;
authorize "blank check" preferred stock that our board could issue to increase the number of outstanding shares to discourage a takeover attempt;
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prohibit stockholder action by written consent, which means that all stockholder actions must be taken at a meeting of our stockholders;
prohibit stockholders from calling a special meeting of our stockholders;
provide that our board is expressly authorized to make, alter or repeal our bylaws; and
provide for advance notice requirements for nominations for elections to our board or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at stockholder meetings.
In addition, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with any "interested" stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an "interested" stockholder and which may discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company.
ITEM 1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2.PROPERTIES
Our corporate headquarters are located in Reston, Virginia, where we occupy approximately 84,000 square feet of office space. We also lease space in various locations throughout North America, South America, Europe, and Asia Pacific for sales and other personnel. If we require additional space, we believe that we would be able to obtain such space on commercially reasonable terms.
Our other material locations, all of which are leased under operating leases, include the following:
Portland, Oregon
New York, New York
Chicago, Illinois
As of December 31, 2021, we leased facilities in 25 locations worldwide, including approximately 45,000 square feet of subleased space in six properties. Currently, however, most of our employees are operating under remote working arrangements.
For additional information regarding our obligations under operating and finance leases, refer to Footnote 9, Leases of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

ITEM 3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
For a discussion of material legal proceedings, please refer to Footnote 12, Commitments and Contingencies of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
MARKET INFORMATION
Our Common Stock trades on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "SCOR".
HOLDERS
As of February 24, 2022, there were 104 stockholders of record of our Common Stock, although we believe that there are a significantly larger number of beneficial owners of our Common Stock. We derived the number of stockholders by reviewing the listing of outstanding Common Stock recorded by our transfer agent as of February 24, 2022. 
STOCK PERFORMANCE GRAPH
The following graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our Common Stock between December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2021 to the cumulative total returns of the Nasdaq Composite Index, the S&P MidCap 400 Index and the Nasdaq Computer Index over the same period. This graph assumes the investment of $100 at the closing price of the markets on December 31, 2016 in our Common Stock, the Nasdaq Composite Index, the S&P MidCap 400 Index and the Nasdaq Computer Index, and assumes the reinvestment of dividends, if any. The comparisons shown in the following graph are based upon historical data. We caution that the stock price performance shown in the graph below is not necessarily indicative of, nor is it intended to forecast, the potential future performance of our Common Stock.
COMPARISON OF CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
among comScore, Inc., The Nasdaq Composite Index, The S&P MidCap 400 Index
and The Nasdaq Computer Index

https://cdn.kscope.io/48e9ee7549e9531b87097fb2516dd4bb-scor-20211231_g1.gif_________________
*$100 invested upon market close of The Nasdaq Global Select Market on December 31, 2016, including reinvestment of dividends.
The preceding Stock Performance Graph is not deemed filed with the SEC and shall not be incorporated by reference in any of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act, as amended whether made before or after the date hereof and irrespective of any general incorporation language in any such securities filing, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference.
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SECURITIES AUTHORIZED FOR ISSUANCE UNDER EQUITY COMPENSATION PLANS
The information relating to our equity compensation plans required by Item 5 is incorporated by reference to such information as set forth in Part III, Item 12, "Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters."
UNREGISTERED SALES OF EQUITY SECURITIES AND USE OF PROCEEDS
Information required by Item 701 of Regulation S-K was previously included in our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on December 17, 2021.
PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS
None.

ITEM 6.[RESERVED]
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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and the related Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, or 10-K. In addition to historical financial information, the following discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results and timing of selected events in future periods may differ materially from those anticipated or implied in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including those discussed under Item 1A, "Risk Factors," and elsewhere in this 10-K. See also "Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" at the beginning of this 10-K.
Overview
We are a global information and analytics company that measures advertising, content, and the consumer audiences of each, across media platforms. We create our products using a global data platform that combines information on digital platforms (connected (Smart) televisions, mobile devices, tablets and computers), TV, OTT devices, direct to consumer applications and movie screens with demographics and other descriptive information. We have developed proprietary data science that enables measurement of person-level and household-level audiences, removing duplicated viewing across devices and over time. This combination of data and methods enables a common standard for buyers and sellers to transact on advertising. This helps companies across the media ecosystem better understand and monetize their audiences and develop marketing plans and products to more efficiently and effectively reach those audiences. Our ability to unify behavioral and other descriptive data enables us to provide audience ratings, advertising verification, and granular consumer segments that describe hundreds of millions of consumers. Our customers include digital publishers, television networks, movie studios, content owners, brand advertisers, agencies and technology providers.
The platforms we measure include televisions, mobile devices, computers, tablets, OTT devices and movie theaters. The information we analyze crosses geographies, types of content and activities, including websites, mobile and OTT apps, video games, television and movie programming, e-commerce, and advertising.
Results of Operations
The following table sets forth selected Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss data as a percentage of revenues for each of the periods indicated.
 Years Ended December 31,
 202120202019
(In thousands)Dollars% of RevenueDollars% of RevenueDollars% of Revenue
Revenues$367,013 100.0 %$356,036 100.0 %$388,645 100.0 %
Cost of revenues203,044 55.3 %180,712 50.8 %199,622 51.4 %
Selling and marketing66,937 18.2 %70,220 19.7 %89,145 22.9 %
Research and development39,123 10.7 %38,706 10.9 %61,802 15.9 %
General and administrative61,736 16.8 %55,783 15.7 %66,419 17.1 %
Amortization of intangible assets25,038 6.8 %27,219 7.6 %30,076 7.7 %
Impairment of right-of-use and long-lived assets— — %4,671 1.3 %— — %
Impairment of goodwill— — %— — %224,272 57.7 %
Impairment of intangible asset— — %— — %17,308 4.5 %
Investigation and audit related— — %— — %4,305 1.1 %
Restructuring— — %— — %3,263 0.8 %
Settlement of litigation, net— — %— — %2,900 0.7 %
Total expenses from operations395,878 107.9 %377,311 106.0 %699,112 179.9 %
Loss from operations(28,865)(7.9)%(21,275)(6.0)%(310,467)(79.9)%
Loss on extinguishment of debt(9,629)(2.6)%— — %— — %
Interest expense, net(7,801)(2.1)%(35,805)(10.1)%(31,526)(8.1)%
Other (expense) income, net(5,778)(1.6)%14,554 4.1 %1,654 0.4 %
Gain (loss) from foreign currency transactions2,895 0.8 %(4,490)(1.3)%336 0.1 %
Loss before income taxes(49,178)(13.4)%(47,016)(13.2)%(340,003)(87.5)%
Income tax (provision) benefit(859)(0.2)%(902)(0.3)%1,007 0.3 %
Net loss$(50,037)(13.6)%$(47,918)(13.5)%$(338,996)(87.2)%
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Revenues
Our products and services are organized around solution groups that address customer needs. We evaluated revenues around three solution groups for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019:
Ratings and Planning provides measurement of the behavior and characteristics of audiences of content and advertising, across television and digital platforms including connected (Smart) televisions, computers, tablets, mobile devices, and other connected devices. These products and services are designed to help customers find the most relevant viewing audience, whether that viewing is linear, non-linear, online or on-demand.
Analytics and Optimization includes custom solutions, activation, lift and survey-based products that provide end-to-end solutions for planning, optimization and evaluation of advertising campaigns and brand protection.
Movies Reporting and Analytics measures movie viewership and box office results by capturing movie ticket sales in real time or near real time and includes box office analytics, trend analysis and insights for movie studios and movie theater operators worldwide.
We categorize our revenue along these solution groups; however, our cost structure is tracked at the corporate level and not by our solution groups. These costs include, but are not limited to employee costs, purchased data, operational overhead, data storage and technology that supports multiple solution groups.
Revenues for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 are as follows:
 Year Ended December 31,
(In thousands)2021% of Revenue2020% of Revenue$ Variance% Variance
Ratings and Planning (1)
$255,073 69.5 %$253,652 71.2 %$1,421 0.6 %
Analytics and Optimization (1)
81,306 22.2 %69,080 19.4 %12,226 17.7 %
Movies Reporting and Analytics30,634 8.3 %33,304 9.4 %(2,670)(8.0)%
Total revenues$367,013 100.0 %$356,036 100.0 %$10,977 3.1 %
(1) In the second quarter of 2020, we began classifying revenue from certain new and extended custom agreements for services that utilize our syndicated data set, previously classified under Analytics and Optimization, as Ratings and Planning. The impact was not material to either solution group.
Total revenues increased by $11.0 million, or 3.1%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to 2020.
Ratings and Planning revenue is comprised of revenue from our digital, television and cross-platform products. Ratings and Planning increased by $1.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to 2020. The increase was driven by higher revenue from our TV products, offset by lower revenue from our syndicated digital products. TV revenue was higher primarily due to new partnerships, increased agency adoption and higher deliveries of custom TV data. TV revenue increased to 43% of Ratings and Planning revenue in 2021 as compared to 40% in 2020. Syndicated digital revenue was lower primarily due to our smaller customers who continued to be impacted by ongoing industry changes in ad buying and consolidations. While retention of syndicated digital enterprise customers remained high, revenue from our syndicated digital products represented 45% and 48% of our Ratings and Planning revenue for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Analytics and Optimization revenue increased by $12.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to 2020. The increase was related to higher revenue across our product offerings, including activation, custom solutions, lift and survey. Activation experienced double-digit year-over-year growth as we continued to bring new solutions to market.
Movies Reporting and Analytics revenue decreased by $2.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to 2020. The decrease was primarily driven by lower revenues during the first quarter of 2021, which reflected the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and its effect on theater closures, movie releases and consumer behavior worldwide. Based on more recent trends, we believe revenue from the movies business should experience sequential quarterly increases as consumers return to theaters.
Revenues for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 are as follows:
 Year Ended December 31,
(In thousands)2020% of Revenue2019% of Revenue$ Variance% Variance
Ratings and Planning (1)
$253,652 71.2 %$271,623 69.9 %$(17,971)(6.6)%
Analytics and Optimization (1)
69,080 19.4 %74,725 19.2 %(5,645)(7.6)%
Movies Reporting and Analytics33,304 9.4 %42,297 10.9 %(8,993)(21.3)%
Total revenues$356,036 100.0 %$388,645 100.0 %$(32,609)(8.4)%
(1) In the second quarter of 2020, we began classifying revenue from certain new and extended custom agreements for services that utilize our syndicated data set, previously classified under Analytics and Optimization, as Ratings and Planning. The impact was not material to either solution group.
Total revenues decreased by $32.6 million, or 8.4%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to 2019.
Ratings and Planning revenue is comprised of revenue from our digital, television and cross-platform products. Ratings and Planning decreased by $18.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to 2019. The decrease was largely driven by lower revenue from our syndicated digital products due in part to the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, revenue from our smaller and international syndicated digital customers continued to be impacted by ongoing industry changes in ad buying and consolidations. While retention of syndicated digital
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enterprise customers remained high, revenue from our syndicated digital products represented 48% and 51% of our Ratings and Planning revenue for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Cross-platform revenue decreased due to fewer deliveries of data in 2020 versus 2019. TV revenue was higher primarily due to new partnerships, additional deliveries of local and addressable TV solutions, and increased deliveries on contracts with political customers. TV revenue increased to 40% of Ratings and Planning revenue in 2020 as compared to 36% in 2019.
Analytics and Optimization revenue decreased by $5.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to 2019. The decrease was primarily due to fewer deliveries of custom solutions, lift and survey deliverables, and branded content, due in part to the COVID-19 pandemic. These decreases were partially offset by higher activation usage during the year.
Movies Reporting and Analytics revenue decreased by $9.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to 2019. Revenue was impacted by theater closures, delayed releases and shifts in consumer behavior as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
New Solution Groups
In the first quarter of 2022, management decided to evaluate future revenue results around solution groups that better represent our evolving business and customer needs. Beginning with the first quarter of 2022, we plan to present revenue in two solution groups:
Digital Ad Solutions; and
Cross Platform Solutions, which includes the movies business.
If we had evaluated revenue based on these solution groups for the year ended December 31, 2021, our revenue from Digital Ad Solutions and Cross Platform Solutions would have been approximately 60% and 40% of total revenue, respectively.
Revenues by Geographic Location
Revenue from outside of the United States was $45.1 million, $45.3 million and $52.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively. Non-U.S. revenue declined due in part to our exit from certain countries as part of restructuring activities in prior years, as well as the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
We generate the majority of our revenues from the sale and delivery of our products within the United States. For information with respect to sales by geographic markets, refer to Footnote 4, Revenue Recognition, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Our chief operating decision maker (our CEO) does not evaluate the profit or loss from any separate geography.
We anticipate that revenues from our U.S. sales will continue to constitute a substantial and increasing portion of our revenues in future periods. We expect our non-U.S. revenues to continue to decline as a percentage of our total revenues as a result of relative growth in our domestic product offerings.
WPP Related Party Revenue
We provide WPP and its affiliates, in the normal course of business, services relating to our different product lines and receive various services from WPP and its affiliates in supporting our data collection efforts. For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019, related party revenues with WPP and its affiliates were $13.6 million, $13.3 million and $15.9 million, respectively.
Cost of Revenues
Cost of revenues consists primarily of expenses related to producing our products, operating our network infrastructure, the recruitment, maintenance and support of our consumer panels and amortization of capitalized fulfillment costs. These expenses include employee costs for salaries, benefits, stock-based compensation and other related personnel costs of network operations, survey operations, custom analytics and technical support, all of which are expensed as they are incurred. Cost of revenues also includes costs to obtain multichannel video programming distributor ("MVPD") data sets and panel, census based and other data sets used in our products as well as operational costs associated with our data centers, including depreciation expense associated with computer equipment and internally developed software that supports our panels and systems. Additionally, cost of revenues includes allocated overhead, lease expense and other facilities-related costs.
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Cost of revenues for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 are as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
(In thousands)2021% of Revenue2020
% of Revenue
$ Variance% Variance
Data costs$74,196 20.2 %$63,598 17.9 %$10,598 16.7 %
Employee costs41,386 11.3 %38,920 10.9 %2,466 6.3 %
Systems and bandwidth costs27,565 7.5 %24,349 6.8 %3,216 13.2 %
Lease expense and depreciation18,946 5.2 %16,970 4.8 %1,976 11.6 %
Panel costs15,198 4.1 %19,075 5.4 %(3,877)(20.3)%
Sample and survey costs7,008 1.9 %5,133 1.4 %1,875 36.5 %
Technology5,689 1.6 %5,710 1.6 %(21)(0.4)%
Professional fees5,109 1.4 %4,272 1.2 %837 19.6 %
Royalties and resellers4,039 1.1 %(33)— %4,072 
NM (1)
Other3,908 1.1 %2,718 0.8 %1,190 43.8 %
Total cost of revenues$203,044 55.3 %$180,712 50.8 %$22,332 12.4 %
(1) Calculation is not meaningful.
Cost of revenues increased by $22.3 million, or 12.4%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to 2020. Data costs increased by $10.6 million primarily due to higher TV data licensing costs to expand our data footprint and data rights, including our expanded data license with Charter. Royalties and resellers expenses increased $4.1 million primarily due to a $2.0 million one-time, non-cash benefit related to certain revenue share arrangements recorded in the fourth quarter of 2020, lower costs during 2020 due to less revenue associated with revenue sharing arrangements, and a reclassification of costs historically captured in data costs to better reflect the nature of the services provided. Systems and bandwidth costs increased $3.2 million primarily due to increases in cloud-based data storage and bandwidth capacity. Employee costs increased $2.5 million as we allocated more employee resources towards support of our products and operating infrastructure and modified certain employee incentive compensation. Lease expense and depreciation increased $2.0 million primarily due to higher depreciation driven by previously capitalized internal-use software costs. Sample and survey costs increased $1.9 million primarily due to higher sales and deliveries of digital marketing solutions. Other expenses increased by $1.2 million primarily due to higher contract fulfillment costs associated with the delivery of our cross-platform products in Europe. Offsetting these increases was a decrease in panel costs of $3.9 million primarily due to lower recruitment and support costs for our mobile panels.
Cost of revenues for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 are as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
(In thousands)2020% of Revenue2019
% of Revenue
$ Variance% Variance
Data costs$63,598 17.9 %$60,165 15.5 %$3,433 5.7 %
Employee costs38,920 10.9 %50,996 13.1 %(12,076)(23.7)%
Systems and bandwidth costs24,349 6.8 %25,023 6.4 %(674)(2.7)%
Panel costs19,075 5.4 %20,901 5.4 %(1,826)(8.7)%
Lease expense and depreciation16,970 4.8 %15,052 3.9 %1,918 12.7 %
Technology5,710 1.6 %5,887 1.5 %(177)(3.0)%
Sample and survey costs5,133 1.4 %7,225 1.9 %(2,092)(29.0)%
Professional fees4,272 1.2 %6,985 1.8 %(2,713)(38.8)%
Royalties and resellers(33)— %4,027 1.0 %(4,060)
NM (1)
Other2,718 0.8 %3,361 0.9 %(643)(19.1)%
Total cost of revenues$180,712 50.8 %$199,622 51.4 %$(18,910)(9.5)%
(1) Calculation is not meaningful.
Cost of revenues decreased by $18.9 million, or 9.5%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to 2019. Employee costs decreased $12.1 million primarily due to lower headcount. Royalties and resellers costs decreased $4.1 million primarily due to a $2.0 million one-time, non-cash benefit related to certain revenue share arrangements recorded in the fourth quarter of 2020 and lower costs due to less revenue associated with revenue sharing arrangements. Professional fees decreased $2.7 million primarily due to a decrease in consulting services. Sample and survey costs decreased $2.1 million primarily due to lower sales and deliveries of digital marketing solutions. Panel costs decreased $1.8 million driven by lower recruitment and support costs for our mobile panels. Offsetting these decreases was an increase in data costs of $3.4 million primarily due to increases in data licensing agreements as we continued to invest in product solution offerings through the acquisition of additional TV data. Lease expense and depreciation increased $1.9 million primarily due to increased depreciation driven by previously capitalized internal-use software costs.
Selling and Marketing
Selling and marketing expenses consist primarily of employee costs, including salaries, benefits, commissions, stock-based compensation and other related costs for personnel associated with sales and marketing activities, as well as costs related to online and offline advertising,
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industry conferences, promotional materials, public relations, other sales and marketing programs and allocated overhead, which is comprised of lease expense and other facilities-related costs, and depreciation expense generated by general purpose equipment and software.
Selling and marketing expenses for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 are as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
(In thousands)2021% of Revenue 2020% of Revenue $ Variance% Variance
Employee costs $55,966 15.2 %$57,629 16.2 %$(1,663)(2.9)%
Lease expense and depreciation4,217 1.1 %4,980 1.4 %(763)(15.3)%
Technology2,621 0.7 %2,579 0.7 %42 1.6 %
Professional fees2,024 0.6 %2,651 0.7 %(627)(23.7)%
Travel333 0.1 %720 0.2 %(387)(53.8)%
Other1,776 0.5 %1,661 0.5 %115 6.9 %
Total selling and marketing expenses$66,937 18.2 %$70,220 19.7 %$(3,283)(4.7)%
Selling and marketing expenses decreased by $3.3 million, or 4.7%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to 2020. Employee costs decreased $1.7 million primarily due to lower commission expense and a decrease in employee headcount. Lease and depreciation expense decreased $0.8 million primarily due to lower rent as we reduced our office footprint and sublet two locations during 2020.
Selling and marketing expenses for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 are as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
(In thousands)2020% of Revenue 2019% of Revenue $ Variance% Variance
Employee costs $57,629 16.2 %$71,979 18.5 %$(14,350)(19.9)%
Lease expense and depreciation4,980 1.4 %5,690 1.5 %(710)(12.5)%
Professional fees2,651 0.7 %2,521 0.6 %130 5.2 %
Technology2,579 0.7 %2,726 0.7 %(147)(5.4)%
Travel720 0.2 %3,260 0.8 %(2,540)(77.9)%
Other1,661 0.5 %2,969 0.8 %(1,308)(44.1)%
Total selling and marketing expenses$70,220 19.7 %$89,145 22.9 %$(18,925)(21.2)%
Selling and marketing expenses decreased by $18.9 million, or 21.2%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to 2019. Employee costs decreased $14.4 million primarily as a result of lower headcount and a decrease in sales commissions. Travel costs decreased $2.5 million, and other costs decreased $1.3 million, primarily due to a reduction in travel and lower marketing and event costs as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses include product development costs, consisting primarily of employee costs including salaries, benefits, stock-based compensation and other related costs for personnel associated with research and development activities, third-party expenses to develop new products and third-party data costs and allocated overhead, which is comprised of lease expense and other facilities-related costs, and depreciation expense related to general purpose equipment and software.
Research and development expenses for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 are as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
(In thousands)2021% of Revenue2020% of Revenue$ Variance% Variance
Employee costs $29,116 7.9 %$28,512 8.0 %$604 2.1 %
Technology4,264 1.2 %4,322 1.2 %(58)(1.3)%
Lease expense and depreciation3,555 1.0 %3,999 1.1 %(444)(11.1)%
Professional fees1,664 0.5 %1,258 0.4 %406 32.3 %
Other524 0.1 %615 0.2 %(91)(14.8)%
Total research and development expenses$39,123 10.7 %$38,706 10.9 %$417 1.1 %
Research and development expenses increased by $0.4 million, or 1.1%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to 2020. Employee costs increased $0.6 million primarily due to higher stock-based compensation expense and the modification of certain employee incentive compensation.
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Research and development expenses for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 are as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
(In thousands)2020% of Revenue2019% of Revenue$ Variance% Variance
Employee costs $28,512 8.0 %$47,626 12.3 %$(19,114)(40.1)%
Technology4,322 1.2 %4,164 1.1 %158 3.8 %
Lease expense and depreciation3,999 1.1 %5,958 1.5 %(1,959)(32.9)%
Professional fees1,258 0.4 %2,860 0.7 %(1,602)(56.0)%
Other615 0.2 %1,194 0.3 %(579)(48.5)%
Total research and development expenses$38,706 10.9 %$61,802 15.9 %$(23,096)(37.4)%
Research and development expenses decreased by $23.1 million, or 37.4%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to 2019. Employee costs decreased $19.1 million primarily due to lower headcount. Lease expense and depreciation decreased $2.0 million primarily due to lower rent as we reduced our office footprint and sublet two locations during 2020. Professional fees decreased $1.6 million primarily due to a decrease in consulting services.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of employee costs including salaries, benefits, stock-based compensation and other related costs, and related expenses for executive management, finance, human capital, legal and other administrative functions, as well as professional fees, overhead, including allocated overhead, which is comprised of lease expense and other facilities-related costs, depreciation expense related to general purpose equipment and software, and expenses incurred for other general corporate purposes.
General and administrative expenses for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 are as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
(In thousands)2021% of Revenue2020% of Revenue$ Variance% Variance
Employee costs $33,571 9.1 %$28,205 7.9 %$5,366 19.0 %
Professional fees16,194 4.4 %12,922 3.6 %3,272 25.3 %
Technology2,922 0.8 %2,246 0.6 %676 30.1 %
Lease expense and depreciation